Weibl H. Zur Topographie der Medulla spinalis der Albinoratte (Rattus Norvegicus) Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol. 1973;47:6.
Rexed B. A cytoarchitectonic atlas of the spinal cord in the cat. J Comp Neurol. 1954;100:297–379. [PubMed: 13163236]
Rexed B. The cytoarchitectonic organization of the spinal cord in the cat. J Comp Neurol. 1952;96:415–495. [PubMed: 14946260]
Scheibel ME, Scheibel AB. Terminal axonal patterns in cat spinal cord. Ist ed. The lateral corticospinal tract Brain Res. 1966a;2:333–350. [PubMed: 4165493]
Scheibel ME, Scheibel AB. Spinal motoneurons, interneurons and Renshaw cells. A Golgi study Arch Ital Biol. 1966b;104:328–353.
Scheibel ME, Scheibel AB. Terminal axonal patterns in cat spinal cord. II. The dorsal horn. Brain Res. 1968;9:32–58. [PubMed: 5699822]
Brown AG. Organization in the spinal cord. The anatomy and physiology of identified neurons New York: Springer. 1981
Waldeyer H. Das Gorilla Rückenmark. Abh K Akad. Berlin: Wiss. 1888:1–147.
Schoenen J. The dendritic organization of the human spinal cord: The dorsal horn. Neuroscience. 1982a;7:2057–2087. [PubMed: 7145088]
Coimbra A, Lima D. Projections and neurochemical specificity of the different morphological types of marginal cellsIn: Cervero F, Bennett GJ, Headley PM, eds.Processing of Sensory Information in the Superficial Dorsal Horn of the Spinal CordNew York and London: Plenum Press,1988199–215.
Lima D, Coimbra A. Morphological types of spinomesencephalic neurons in the marginal zone (lamina I) of the rat spinal cord, as shown after retrograde labelling with cholera toxin subunit B. J Comp Neurol. 1989;279:327–339. [PubMed: 2913071]
Lenhossék MV. Der feinere Bau des Nervensystems in Lichte neuester Forschungen. Eine allgemeine Betrachtung der Strukturprinzipien des Nervensystems, nebst einer Darstellung des feineren Baues des Rückenmarkes. Berlin: Kornfeld. 1895:VII–409.
Lima D, Coimbra A. A Golgi study of the neuronal population of the marginal zone (lamina I) of the rat spinal cord. J Comp Neurol. 1986;244:53–71. [PubMed: 3950090]
Réthelyi M, Light AR, Perl ER. Synaptic ultrastructure of functionally and morphologically characterized neurons of the superficial spinal dorsal horn of the cat. J Neuroscience. 1989;9:1846–1863. [PubMed: 2723753]
Bennett GJ, Abdelmoumene M, Hayashi et al. Physiology and morphology of substantia gelatinosa neurons intracellularly stained with horseradish peroxidase. J Comp Neurol. 1980;194:809–827. [PubMed: 6162863]
Bennett GJ, Abdelmoumene M, Hayashi et al. Spinal cord layer I neurons with axon collaterals that generate local arbors. Brain Res. 1981;209:421–426. [PubMed: 7225801]
Beal JA, Nandi KN, Knight DS. Characterization of long ascending tract projection neurons and nontract neurons in the superficial dorsal hornIn: Cervero F, Bennett GJ, Headley PM, eds.Processing of Sensory Information in the Superficial Dorsal Horn of the Spinal CordNew York and London: Plenum Press,1988a181–197.
Todd AJ, Lewis SG. The morphology of Golgi-stained neurons in lamina II of the rat spinal cord. J Anat. 1986;149:113–119. [PMC free article: PMC1261638] [PubMed: 2447052]
Maxwell DJ, Fyffe RE, Réthelyi M. Morphological properties of physiologically characterized lamina III neurones in the cat spinal cord. Neuroscience. 1983;10:1–22. [PubMed: 6646416]
Maxwell DJ. Combined light and electron microscopy of Golgi-labelled neurons in lamina III of the feline spinal cord. J Anat. 1985;141:155–169. [PMC free article: PMC1166397] [PubMed: 4077713]
Beal JA, Russell CT, Knight DS. Morphological and developmental characterization of local-circuit neurons in lamina III of the rat spinal cord. Neurosci Lett. 1988b;86:1–5. [PubMed: 2452390]
Mannen H, Sugiura Y. Reconstruction of neurons of dorsal horn proper using Golgi-stained serial sections. J Comp Neurol. 1976;168:303–312. [PubMed: 956461]
Réthelyi M, Szentágothai J. Distribution and connections of afferent fibres in the spinal cordIn: Iggo A, ed.Handbook of Sensory PhysiologyVol. II. Berlin: Springer,1973207–252.
Todd AJ, Sullivan AC. Light microscope study of the coexistence of GABA-like and glycin-like immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1990;296:496–505. [PubMed: 2358549]
Smith MC. Retrograde cell changes in human spinal cord after anterolateral cordotomies. Location and identification after different period of survival Adv Pain Res Ther. 1976;1:91–98.
Gwyn DG, Waldron HA. A nucleus in the dorsal lateral funiculus of the spinal cord of the rat. Brain Res. 1968;10:342–351. [PubMed: 4176805]
Schoenen J, Faull RLM. Spinal cord: Cytoarchitectural, dendroarchitectural and myeloarchiotectural organizationIn: Paxinos G, ed.The Human Nervous SystemSan Diego: Academic Press,199019–53.
Romanes GJ. The motor columns of the spinal cord. Prog Brain Res. 1964;11:93–116. [PubMed: 14300484]
Schoenen J. Dendritic organization of the human spinal cord: The motoneurons. J Comp Neurol. 1982b;211:226–247. [PubMed: 7174892]
Honda C, Lee C. Immunohistochemistry of synaptic input and functional characterization of neurons near the spinal central canal. Brain Res. 1985;343:120–128. [PubMed: 2412642]
Jankowska E, Lindström S. Morphological identification of Renshaw cells. Acta Physiol Scand. 1971;81:428–430. [PubMed: 4101374]
Jankowska E, Lindström S. Morphology of interneurones mediating Ia reciprocal inhibition of motoneurones in the spinal cord of the cat. J Physiol. 1972;226:805–823. [PMC free article: PMC1331178] [PubMed: 4118049]
Jankowska E. Spinal interneuronal systems: Identification, multifunctional character and reconfigurations in mammals. J Physiol. 2001;533:31–40. [PMC free article: PMC2278593] [PubMed: 11351010]
Edgley SA. Organisation of spinal interneurone populations. J Phys. 2001;533:51–56. [PMC free article: PMC2278602] [PubMed: 11351012]
Antal M, Freund TF, Polgár E. Calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumin- and calbindin-D 28k-immunoreactive neurons in the rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia: A light and electron microscopic study. J Comp Neurol. 1990;295:467–484. [PubMed: 2351764]
Carr PA, Alvarez J, Leman EA. et al. Calbindin-D28k expression in immunohistochemically identified Renshaw cells. Neuroreport. 1998;9:2657–2671. [PubMed: 9721951]
Clowry GJ, Arnott GA, Clement-Jones M. et al. Changing pattern of expression of parvalbumin immunoreactivity during human fetal spinal cord development. J Comp Neurol. 2000;423:727–735. [PubMed: 10880999]
Kimelberg HK, Norenberg MD. Astrocytes. Sci Amer April. 1989:44–52.
Fraher JP. The CNS-PNS transitional zone of the rat. Morphometric studies at cranial and spinal levels. Prog Neurobiol. 1992;38:261–316. [PubMed: 1546164]
Jordan FL, Thomas WE. Brain macrophages: Questions of origin and interrelationship. Brain Res Rev. 1988;13:165–178. [PubMed: 3289689]
Klinkert WEF. Lymphoid dendrite accessory cells of the rat. Immunol Rev. 1990;117:103–120. [PubMed: 2258188]
Cervero F. Dorsal horn neurons and their sensory inputsIn: Yaksh TL, ed.Spinal Afferent ProcessingNew York: Plenum Press,1986197–216.
Molander C, Grant G. Spinal cord projections from hindlimb muscle nerves in the rat studied by transganglionic transport of horseradish peroxidase, wheat germ agglutinin conjugated horseradish peroxidase, or horseradish peroxidase with dimethylsulfoxide. J Comp Neurol. 1987;260:246–255. [PubMed: 3038969]
Giuffrida R, Rustioni A. Dorsal root ganglion neurons projecting to the dorsal column nuclei of rats. J Comp Neurol. 1992;316:206–220. [PubMed: 1374085]
Willis WD, Coggeshall RE. 1978 . Sensory Mechanisms of the Spinal Cord. New York: Plenum Press.
Molander C, Grant G. The cytoarchitectonic organization of the spinal cord in the rat. Ist ed. The lower thoracic and lumbosacral cord. J Comp Neurol. 1984;230:133–141. [PubMed: 6512014]
Schoen JH. Comparative aspects of the descending fiber systems in the spinal cord. Prog Brain Res. 1964;11:203–222. [PubMed: 14300479]
Kuypers HGJM. The descending pathways to the spinal cord, their anatomy and function. Prog Brain Res. 1964;11:178–200. [PubMed: 14300477]
Proudlock F, Spike RC, Todd AJ. Immunocytochemical study of somatostatin, neurotensin, GABA and glycine in the rat spinal cord. J Comp Neurol. 1993;327:289–297. [PubMed: 7678841]
Holstege G, Kuypers HGJM. The anatomy of brainstem pathways to the spinal cord in the cat. A labelled amino acid tracing study. Prog Brain Res. 1982;57:145–175. [PubMed: 7156396]
Holstege G. Anatomical evidence for an ipsilateral rubrospinal pathway and for direct rubrospinal projections of motoneurons in the cat. Neurosci Lett. 1987;74:269–274. [PubMed: 3561881]
Jankowska E, Lundberg A. Interneurones in the spinal cord. Trends Neurosci. 1981;4:230–233.
Brown AG. Nerve cells and nervous systems. Springer Verlag. 1991
Schomburg ED. Spinal sensorimotor systems and their supraspinal control. Neurosci Res. 1990;7:265–340. [PubMed: 2156196]
Jankowska E. Intraneuronal organisation in reflex pathways from proprioceptorsIn: Garlik DG, Kormer PJ, eds.Frontiers in Physiol Res Australia AC of Science 1984228–237.
Sherrington CS. Flexion reflex of the limbs, crossed extension reflex and reflex stepping and standing. J Physiol. 1910;40:28–121. [PMC free article: PMC1533734] [PubMed: 16993027]
Brown TG. The intrinsic factors in the act of progression in the mammal. Proc Roy Soc London. 1911;84:308–319.
Grillner S. Locomotion in vertebrates. Central mechanisms and reflex interaction. Physiol Rev. 1975;55:247–304. [PubMed: 1144530]
Eidelberg E. Consequences of spinal cord lesions repair motor function, with special reference to locomotor activity. Prog in Neurobiol. 1981;17:185–202. [PubMed: 6798636]
Dimitrijevic MR, Nathan PW. Studies of spasticity in man. 6. Habituation, dishabituation and sensitisation of tendon reflexes in spinal man. Brain. 1973;96:337–354. [PubMed: 4715188]
Shik ML, Orlovski GN. Neurophysiology of locomotor automatism. Physiol Rev. 1976;56:465–501. [PubMed: 778867]
Eidelberg E. Locomotor control in monkeysIn: Eccles J, Dimitrijevic MR, eds.Upper Motoneuron Functions and DysfunctionsKarger,1985179–184.
Nathan PW, Smith MC. Effects of two unilateral cordotomies on the motility of the lower limbs. Brain. 1973;96:471–494. [PubMed: 4517841]
de GroatWC, Booth AM, Yoshimura N. Neurophysiology of micturition and its modification in animal models of human diseaseIn: Maggi CA, ed.Nervous Control of the Urogenital SystemPart of series: Burnstock G, ed. The Autonomic Nervous System. Harwood Ac1993227–290.
Pruss RM, Akeson RL, Racke MM. et al. Agonist-activated cobalt uptake identifies divalent cation permeable kainate receptors on neurons and glial cells. Neuron. 1991;7:509–518. [PubMed: 1716930]
The spinal column (or vertebral column) extends from the skull to the pelvis and is made up of 33 individual bones termed vertebrae. The vertebrae are stacked on top of each other group into four regions:
|Term||# of Vertebrae||Body Area||Abbreviation|
|Cervical||7||Neck||C1 – C7|
|Thoracic||12||Chest||T1 – T12|
|Lumbar||5 or 6||Low Back||L1 – L5|
|Sacrum||5 (fused)||Pelvis||S1 – S5|
Cervical Vertebrae (C1 – C7)
The cervical spine is further divided into two parts; the upper cervical region (C1 and C2), and the lower cervical region (C3 through C7). C1 is termed the Atlas and C2 the Axis. The Occiput (CO), also known as the Occipital Bone, is a flat bone that forms the back of the head.
The Atlas is the first cervical vertebra and therefore abbreviated C1. This vertebra supports the skull. Its appearance is different from the other spinal vertebrae. The atlas is a ring of bone made up of two lateral masses joined at the front and back by the anterior arch and the posterior arch.
The Axis is the second cervical vertebra or C2. It is a blunt tooth–like process that projects upward. It is also referred to as the ‘dens’ (Latin for ‘tooth’) or odontoid process. The dens provides a type of pivot and collar allowing the head and atlas to rotate around the dens.
Thoracic Vertebrae (T1 – T12)
The thoracic vertebrae increase in size from T1 through T12. They are characterized by small pedicles, long spinous processes, and relatively large intervertebral foramen (neural passageways), which result in less incidence of nerve compression.
1-Vertebral Body 2-Spinous Process 3-Transverse Facet
4-Pedicle 5-Foramen 6-Lamina 7-Superior Facet
The rib cage is joined to the thoracic vertebrae. At T11 and T12, the ribs do not attach and are so are called "floating ribs." The thoracic spine's range of motion is limited due to the many rib/vertebrae connections and the long spinous processes.
Lumbar Vertebrae (L1 – L5)
The lumbar vertebrae graduate in size from L1 through L5. These vertebrae bear much of the body's weight and related biomechanical stress. The pedicles are longer and wider than those in the thoracic spine. The spinous processes are horizontal and more squared in shape. The intervertebral foramen (neural passageways) are relatively large but nerve root compression is more common than in the thoracic spine.
Purpose of the Vertebrae
Although vertebrae range in size; cervical the smallest, lumbar the largest, vertebral bodies are the weight bearing structures of the spinal column. Upper body weight is distributed through the spine to the sacrum and pelvis. The natural curves in the spine, kyphotic and lordotic, provide resistance and elasticity in distributing body weight and axial loads sustained during movement.
The vertebrae are composed of many elements that are critical to the overall function of the spine, which include the intervertebral discs and facet joints.
Functions of the Vertebral or Spinal Column Include:
|Base for Attachment|
|Flexibility and Mobility|
The Sacrum is located behind the pelvis. Five bones (abbreviated S1 through S5) fused into a triangular shape, form the sacrum. The sacrum fits between the two hipbones connecting the spine to the pelvis. The last lumbar vertebra (L5) articulates (moves) with the sacrum. Immediately below the sacrum are five additional bones, fused together to form the Coccyx (tailbone).
Updated on: 02/23/17