First, a confession or two. I know I was meant to read Tim Powers's The Anubis Gates next, but Gene Wolfe arrived first in the post and so I got stuck in; by the time poor old Tim arrived a few days later, I couldn't be prised away. In my ignorance I hadn't realised The Book of the New Sun is actually four novels; my edition was of the first two, The Shadow of the Torturer and The Claw of the Conciliator, so this post is about those.
My other admission is to trepidation: Wolfe is revered – and I mean seriously revered – by authors from Neil Gaiman to George RR Martin and Ursula Le Guin, both of whom have called The Book of the New Sun a masterpiece. Although not everyone likes it, one extremely detailed essay says "it could be argued that The Book of the New Sun is science fiction's Ulysses". Crikey.
Second: a couple of wonderings. A few of you (JamesWMoar, MaxCairnduff, RobKill, AddisonSteele) had warned me not to tackle Wolfe while I was still reeling from the intense Elizabethan-style English of The Worm Ouroboros (or his "linguistic porridge", as AddisonSteele put it – true, but I do like porridge). I imagined that I'd be glooping along through olde worlde syntax, but Wolfe isn't like that at all. Yes, there's plenty of odd words – "fuligin" for black, "carnifex" for torturer, "destriers", which are sort of super-horses. But I found this all added to the other-ness of the world Wolfe has created; I didn't exactly understand some words until I looked them up but I knew what he meant by them, and I loved his "note on translation" at the end of the first book, when he tells us how he went about "rendering this book - originally composed in a tongue that has not yet achieved existence – into English". Did you warner-offers find it irritating? I really enjoyed it.
Also, while The Shadow of the Torturer won the World fantasy award in 1981 and has the trappings of fantasy (young man, long sword, mysterious destiny), surely it's really science fiction? Set a million years in the future on a world with a dying sun, where the moon is green and irrigated, daylight is red, and "rotting jungles" circle "the waist of the world", it follows the story of Severian, a torturer in the decaying Citadel who shows mercy to a prisoner he's fallen in love with. Rather than being killed for his crime, he's exiled, given an ancient sword (Terminus Est) and sent to the distant city of Thrax. On his way out of the vast urban sprawl of Nessus, his adventures include fighting a duel with a flower (more deadly than it sounds), accidentally stealing the Claw of the Conciliator (a glowing, seemingly magical jewel) from a temple and fishing a girl, Dorcas, out of a lake where the dead are sunk.
The story is recounted by Severian himself from a position in the future. He is, I suspect, brilliantly unreliable; as well as the challenge of picking through his statements, this is a world which Wolfe never explains directly – the reader has to piece its realities together, which is hugely satisfying.
He goes on to perform a couple of executions, meet a mysterious troupe of travelling players, escape underground man-apes who have mutated from their human origins through "eons of struggles in the dark" and take part in a cannibalistic ritual which confers the substance of a dead person's mind to the eater. We even get a bit of Christopher Marlowe. I'd worried that Severian's occupation would mean endless gruesome descriptions of torture, but this isn't the case at all – apart from a leg-peeling, a excoriated dog, and Severian's few beheadings, Wolfe steers clear of the grisly, and manages to make his torturer-hero if not sympathetic, then definitely charismatic. (Unlike Terry Goodkind, who seems to revel in his Mord-Sith's perversions – although mentioning Goodkind in the same blog as Wolfe feels a bit sacrilegious, so apologies for bringing him up.)
I loved Shadow and Claw – was blown away, in fact. The whole thing is dreamlike in quality, unfathomably large in scope, deliciously, slyly puzzling. It's enormous fun picking away at Severian's ideas about the past of his far future Urth, at the mysteries of his companions Jonas (why does he have a mechanical hand?) and Dorcas (was she resurrected?), at what the Claw might actually be – and at how truthful and accurate our narrator, for all his protestations that he remembers "every rattling chain and whistling wind, every sight, smell and taste", really is. "Trust the text implicitly. The answers are in there," Gaiman tells us. Then "do not trust the text farther than you can throw it, if that far. It's tricksy and desperate stuff, and it may go off in your hand at any time." I think a second read is definitely going to be in order; I'm also champing at the bit for the second half to arrive.
What do you think? I suspect you'll mostly be huge fans, but I'd be interested to know why you think The Book of the New Sun isn't better known. Yes, it's acclaimed by fellow SFF authors and is clearly held in huge esteemall over the place – hell, there's even Wolfian scholarship out there – but despite all this I'd still say it hasn't yet made it to the mainstream. Why is that? It's certainly good enough. Could it be the cover (my version has Severian wearing what looks to be a big leather codpiece)? I'd love to know what you think.
Meanwhile, next up is Mr Powers and The Anubis Gates, which I'm taking on holiday (along with New Sun books three and four – would you be interested in a post on those once I'm done?). Can't wait.
Wolfe during Nebula Awards weekend in Chicago, April 2005 (a 2004 "Nominee")
|Born||Gene Rodman Wolfe|
(1931-05-07) May 7, 1931 (age 86)
New York City
|Occupation||Novelist, short-story writer|
|Genre||Fantasy, science fiction|
|Notable works||Solar Cycle|
Gene Rodman Wolfe (born May 7, 1931) is an American science fiction and fantasy writer. He is noted for his dense, allusive prose as well as the strong influence of his Catholic faith. He is a prolific short-story writer and novelist and has won many science fiction and fantasy literary awards.
Wolfe is most famous for The Book of the New Sun (four volumes, 1980–83), the first part of his Solar Cycle. In 1998, Locus magazine ranked it third-best fantasy novel before 1990 (after The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit) based on a poll of subscribers that considered it and several other series as single entries.[a]
Wolfe was born in New York City, the son of Mary Olivia (née Ayers) and Emerson Leroy Wolfe. He had polio as a small child. While attending Texas A&M University, he published his first speculative fiction in The Commentator, a student literary journal. (Internet Speculative Fiction Database catalogs two 1951 stories.) Wolfe dropped out during his junior year and subsequently was drafted to fight in the Korean War. After returning to the United States, he earned a degree from the University of Houston and became an industrial engineer. He was a senior editor on the staff of the journal Plant Engineering for many years before retiring to write full-time, but his most famous professional engineering achievement is a contribution to the machine used to make Pringles potato chips.
Having previously lived in Barrington, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, with his wife Rosemary, Wolfe moved to Peoria, Illinois in 2013. He underwent double bypass surgery on April 24, 2010. Wolfe also underwent cataract surgery on his right eye in early 2013. Wolfe's wife, Rosemary, died on December 14, 2013, after a series of illnesses, including Alzheimer's disease. Wolfe said, "There was a time when she did not remember my name or that we were married, but she still remembered that she loved me."
Wolfe's first published book was the paperback original novel Operation Ares (Berkley Medallion, 1970). He first received critical attention for The Fifth Head of Cerberus (Scribner's, 1972), which examines "colonial mentality within an orthodox science fiction framework". It was published in German and French-language editions within the decade.
His best-known and most highly regarded work is the multi-volume novel The Book of the New Sun. Set in a bleak, distant future influenced by Jack Vance's Dying Earth series, the story details the life of Severian, a journeyman torturer, exiled from his guild for showing compassion to one of the condemned. The novel is composed of the volumes The Shadow of the Torturer (1980), The Claw of the Conciliator (1981), winner of the Nebula Award for Best Novel, The Sword of the Lictor (1982), and The Citadel of the Autarch (1983). A coda, The Urth of the New Sun (1987), wraps up some loose ends but is generally considered a separate work. Several Wolfe essays about the writing of The Book of the New Sun were published in The Castle of the Otter (1982); the title refers to a misprint of the fourth book's title in Locus magazine).
In 1984, Wolfe retired from his engineering position and was then able to devote more time to his writing. In the 1990s, Wolfe published two more works in the same universe as The Book of the New Sun. The first, The Book of the Long Sun, consists of the novels Nightside the Long Sun (1993), Lake of the Long Sun (1994), Caldé of the Long Sun (1994), and Exodus From the Long Sun (1996). These books follow the priest of a small parish as he becomes wrapped up in political intrigue and revolution in his city-state. Wolfe then wrote a sequel, The Book of the Short Sun, composed of On Blue's Waters (1999), In Green's Jungles (2000) and Return to the Whorl (2001), dealing with colonists who have arrived on the sister planets Blue and Green. The three Sun works (The Book of the New Sun, The Book of the Long Sun, and The Book of the Short Sun) are often referred to collectively as the "Solar Cycle."
Wolfe has also written many stand-alone books. His first novel, Operation Ares, was published by Berkley Books in 1970 and was unsuccessful. He subsequently wrote two novels held in particularly high esteem, Peace and The Fifth Head of Cerberus. The first is the seemingly-rambling narrative of Alden Dennis Weer, a man of many secrets who reviews his life under mysterious circumstances. The Fifth Head of Cerberus is either a collection of three novellas, or a novel in three parts, dealing with colonialism, memory, and the nature of personal identity. The first story, which gives the book its name, was nominated for the Nebula Award for Best Novella.
Wolfe's writing frequently relies on the first-person perspectives of unreliable narrators. He says: "Real people really are unreliable narrators all the time, even if they try to be reliable narrators." The causes for the unreliability of his characters vary. Some are naive, as in Pandora by Holly Hollander or The Knight; others are not particularly intelligent (There Are Doors); Severian, from The Book of the New Sun, is not always truthful; and Latro of the Soldier series suffers from recurrent amnesia.
Wolfe wrote in a letter:
My definition of a great story has nothing to do with "a varied and interesting background." It is: One that can be read with pleasure by a cultivated reader and reread with increasing pleasure.
In that spirit, Wolfe also leaves subtle hints and lacunae that may never be explicitly referred to in the text. For example, a backyard full of morning glories is an intentional foreshadowing of events in Free Live Free, but is only apparent to a reader with a horticultural background, and a story-within-the-story provides a clue to understanding Peace.
Wolfe's language can also be a subject of confusion for the new reader. In the appendix to The Shadow of the Torturer, he says:
In rendering this book – originally composed in a tongue that has not achieved existence – into English, I might easily have saved myself a great deal of labor by having recourse to invented terms; in no case have I done so. Thus in many instances I have been forced to replace yet undiscovered concepts by their closest twentieth-century equivalents. Such words as peltast, androgyn, and exultant are substitutions of this kind, and are intended to be suggestive rather than definitive.
This character of the fictional "translator" of his novel provides a certain insight into Wolfe's writing: all of his terms (fuligin, carnifex, thaumaturge, etc.) are real words.
Although not a best-selling author, Wolfe is highly regarded by critics and fellow writers, and considered by many to be one of the best living science fiction authors. Indeed, he has sometimes been called the best living American writer regardless of genre. Award-winning science fiction author Michael Swanwick has said: "Gene Wolfe is the greatest writer in the English language alive today. Let me repeat that: Gene Wolfe is the greatest writer in the English language alive today! I mean it. Shakespeare was a better stylist, Melville was more important to American letters, and Charles Dickens had a defter hand at creating characters. But among living writers, there is nobody who can even approach Gene Wolfe for brilliance of prose, clarity of thought, and depth in meaning."
Among others, writers Neil Gaiman and Patrick O'Leary have credited Wolfe for inspiration. O'Leary has said: "Forget 'Speculative Fiction'. Gene Wolfe is the best writer alive. Period. And as Wolfe once said, 'All novels are fantasies. Some are more honest about it.' No comparison. Nobody – I mean nobody – comes close to what this artist does." O'Leary also wrote an extensive essay concerning the nature of Wolfe's artistry, entitled "If Ever A Wiz There Was" at the Wayback Machine (archived June 16, 2010), originally published in his collection Other Voices, Other Doors. Ursula K. Le Guin is frequently quoted on the jackets of Wolfe's books as having said "Wolfe is our Melville."
Wolfe's fans regard him with considerable dedication, and one Internet mailing list (begun in November 1996) dedicated to his works has amassed over ten years and thousands of pages of discussion and explication. Similarly, much analysis and exegesis has been published in fanzine and small-press form (e. g. Lexicon UrthusISBN 0-9642795-9-2).
When asked the "Most overrated" and "Most underrated" authors, Thomas M. Disch identified Isaac Asimov and Gene Wolfe, respectively, writing: "...all too many have already gone into a decline after carrying home some trophies. The one exception is Gene Wolfe...Between 1980 and 1982 he published The Book of the New Sun, a tetralogy of couth, intelligence, and suavity that is also written in VistaVision with Dolby Sound. Imagine a Star Wars-style space opera penned by G. K. Chesterton in the throes of a religious conversion. Wolfe has continued in full diapason ever since, and a crossover success is long overdue."
Early in his writing career, Wolfe exchanged correspondence with J. R. R. Tolkien.
Wolfe won the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement in 1996, a judged award at the annual World Fantasy Convention. He was inducted by the Science Fiction Hall of Fame in 2007.[needs update]The Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America named him its 29th SFWA Grand Master in December 2012; the annual Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master Award was presented to Wolfe during Nebula Awards weekend, May 16–19, 2013.
He was Guest of Honor at the 1985 World Science Fiction Convention and he received the 1989 Edward E. Smith Memorial Award (or "Skylark") at the New England convention Boskone. In March 2012 he was presented with the first Chicago Literary Hall of Fame Fuller Award, for outstanding contribution to literature by a Chicago author.
He has also won many awards for individual works:
He has also compiled a long list of nominations in years when he did not win, including sixteen Nebula award nominations and eight Hugo Award nominations.
This is a partial list of works by Wolfe, focusing on those which won awards; for a more detailed list, see Gene Wolfe bibliography.
- The Book of the New Sun
- The Shadow of the Torturer (1980) BSFA Award winner, Nebula Award nominee, 1981; Locus, WFA, and John W. Campbell Memorial Awards nominee, 1981 
- The Claw of the Conciliator (1981) Nebula and Locus Fantasy winner, 1982; Hugo and World Fantasy Awards nominated, 1982 
- The Sword of the Lictor (1982) Locus Fantasy and BFS Winner, 1983; Nebula and BSFA Awards nominee, 1982  Hugo and World Fantasy Awards nominee, 1983 
- The Citadel of the Autarch (1983) John W. Campbell award winner, Nebula and BSFA nominee, 1984; Locus Fantasy nominee, 1983 
- Free Live Free (1984) BSFA nominee, 1985; Nebula nominee, 1986 
- The Urth of the New Sun (1987) Hugo, Nebula, and Locus SF Awards nominee, 1988 
- The Soldier series
- There Are Doors (1988) Locus Fantasy nominee, 1989 
- The Book of the Long Sun
- Nightside the Long Sun (1993) Nebula nominee, 1994 
- Lake of the Long Sun (1994)
- Caldé of the Long Sun (1994) Nebula nominee, 1996 
- Exodus From the Long Sun (1996)
- The Book of the Short Sun
- On Blue's Waters (1999)
- In Green's Jungles (2000) Locus SF nominee, 2001 
- Return to the Whorl (2001) Locus SF nominee, 2002 
- The Wizard Knight
- The Knight (2004) Nebula nominee, 2005 
- The Wizard (2004) Locus Fantasy and World Fantasy Award nominated, 2005 
- Pirate Freedom (2007) Locus Fantasy Award nominee, 2008 
- An Evil Guest (2008)
- The Sorcerer's House (2010)
- 2011 Locus Fantasy nominee
- Home Fires (2011)
- The Land Across (2013)
- A Borrowed Man (2015)
Books about Gene Wolfe
- Gene Wolfe (Starmont Reader's Guide, 29): Joan Gordon (Borgo Press, 1986, ISBN 978-0930261191; reprinted as a Special Publication of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation, 2008, ISBN 978-0930261184), an annotated bibliography and criticism on Wolfe's science fiction and non-fiction writing
- The Wizard Knight Companion: A Lexicon for Gene Wolfe's The Knight and The Wizard: Michael Andre-Driussi (Sirius Fiction, 2009, ISBN 978-0-9642795-3-7), a dictionary of words and names from Wolfe's Wizard Knight novels
- Lexicon Urthus: Michael Andre-Druissi (Sirius Fiction, 1994, ISBN 0-9642795-9-2), a dictionary of the archaic words used by Wolfe in The Book of the New Sun
- The Long and the Short of It: More Essays on the Fiction of Gene Wolfe: Robert Borski (iUniverse, Inc., 2006, ISBN 978-0-595-38645-1)
- Solar Labyrinth: Exploring Gene Wolfe's "Book of the New Sun": Robert Borski (iUniverse, Inc., 2004, ISBN 978-0-595-31729-5)
- Attending Daedalus: Gene Wolfe, Artifice, and the Reader: Peter Wright (Liverpool University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-85323-818-9): Study of The Book of the New Sun and The Urth of the New Sun
- Shadows of the New Sun: Wolfe on Writing / Writers on Wolfe: Peter Wright (Liverpool University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-1-84631-058-4)
- Strokes: John Clute (Serconia Press, 1988, ISBN 0-934933-03-0)
- Gene Wolfe: An annotated bibliography and criticism on Wolfe's science fiction and non-fiction writing: Joan Gordon (Borgo Press, 2008, ISBN 0-930261-18-6)
- Gate of Horn, Book of Silk: A Guide to Gene Wolfe's The Book of the Long Sun and The Book of the Short Sun: Michael Andre-Driussi (Sirius Fiction, 2012, ISBN 0-964279-55-X)
- Shadows of the New Sun, an anthology of stories by other authors which are all explicitly based on Wolfe stories (TOR Books, 2013)
- Between Light and Shadow: An Exploration of the Fiction of Gene Wolfe, 1951-1986: Marc Aramini (Castalia House, 2015, ASIN B011YTDGY2), a comprehensive literary analysis of Wolfe's fiction from 1951 to 1986, volume 1 of 2.
The Death of Doctor Island, 35 mm short, 2008.
- ^Locus subscribers voted only two Middle-earth novels by J. R. R. Tolkien ahead of Wolfe's New Sun, followed by Ursula K. Le Guin's Earthsea series. Third and fourth ranks were exchanged in the 1987 rendition of the poll, "All-Time Best Fantasy Novels", which considered as single entries Wolfe's The Shadow of the Torturer and Le Guin's A Wizard of Earthsea, the first volumes of New Sun and Earthsea.
- ^ abSolar Cycle series listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database (ISFDB). Retrieved 2012-04-24. Select a title to see its linked publication history and general information. Select a particular edition (title) for more data at that level, such as a front cover image or linked contents.
- ^ abc"Wolfe, Gene"Archived 2008-03-14 at the Wayback Machine.. The Locus Index to SF Awards: Index of Literary Nominees. Locus Publications. Retrieved 2012-04-23.
- ^The Locus Online website links multiple pages providing the results of several polls and a little other information. "The Locus Index to SF Awards: 1998 Locus All-Time Poll". Locus Publications. Archived from the original on 2004-01-13. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
• See also "1998 Locus Poll Award". ISFDB. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
- ^"Gene Wolfe Summary". BookRags.com. 2010-11-02. Retrieved 2013-12-30.
- ^"Larry McCaffery, "On Encompassing the Entire Universe: An Interview with Gene Wolfe"". Depauw.edu. Retrieved 2013-12-30.
- ^ abc"Gene Wolfe – Summary Bibliography". ISFDB. Retrieved 2013-04-03.
- ^Autobiographical sketchArchived 2006-10-21 at Archive.is
- ^See the article "Gene Wolfe's time at Plant Engineering", on the Ultan's Library website.
- ^ abLawrence Person (Fall–Winter 1998). "Suns new, long, and short: an interview with Gene Wolfe". Nova Express. 5 (1). Archived from the original on 2009-09-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
- ^Locus Publications (April 27, 2010). "Locus Online News » Gene Wolfe Recovering from Heart Surgery". Locusmag.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^Michael Swanwick (2013-12-16). "Flogging Babel: A Farewell to Rosemary". Floggingbabel.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2013-12-30.
- ^Rosemary Wolfe (b.1931) (2013-12-16). "SF Site News » Obituary: Rosemary Wolfe". Sfsite.com. Retrieved 2013-12-30.
- ^Bebergal, Peyter (April 24, 2015). "Sci-Fi's Difficult Genius". The New Yorker. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
- ^"Gene Wolfe (Gene Rodman Wolfe) Biography - (1931– ), (Gene Rodman Wolfe), The Fifth Head of Cerberus, The Devil in a Forest". Encyclopedia of Literature via JRank (jrank.org). Retrieved 2013-04-03.
- ^"Shadows of the New Sun", p. 112 – "I wanted to present a protagonist who isn't very intelligent. Green isn't."
- ^"From a Chain letter to George R. R. Martin and Greg Benford", 10 July 1982; as published in Gene Wolfe, Castle of Days (1992) [italics in source]
- ^Wolfe, Gene (1994). Shadow & Claw. Tor Books. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-312-89017-9.
- ^Such as John Clute; his The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction writes: “Though neither the most popular nor the most influential author in the sf field, Gene Wolfe is today quite possibly the most important. The inherent stature of his work is deeply impressive and he wears the fictional worlds of sf like a coat of many colors.”
- ^"Michael Swanwick interview". Themodernword.com. 2003-09-26. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. Retrieved 2013-12-30.
- ^"Interview with Patrick O'Leary". Infinityplus.co.uk. 2000-11-11. Retrieved 2013-12-30.
- ^From an article first published in American Heritage May–June 1999. Pg 211 of Overrated/underrated: 100 experts topple the icons and champion the slighted, ed. by the editors of American Heritage magazine. 2001, ISBN 1-57912-163-2, 256 pages, hardcover.
- ^The Annotated Hobbit, 2002 revised and expanded edition, p. 146 n.9; see also Wolfe's "The Best Introduction To The Mountains"Archived 2004-01-13 at the Library of Congress
- ^""Science Fiction Hall of Fame to Induct Ed Emshwiller, Gene Roddenberry, Ridley Scott and Gene Wolfe"". Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. Retrieved 2015-04-26. . Press release March/April/May 2007. Experience Music Project and Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame (empsfm.org). Archived 2007-10-14. Retrieved 2013-03-19.
- ^"2012 Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master Awarded to Gene Wolfe". SFWA press release. December 13, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-13.
- ^Alison Flood (December 14, 2012). "Gene Wolfe wins grand master award for science fiction and fantasy". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-12-14.
- ^"Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master"Archived 2011-07-01 at the Wayback Machine.. Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA). Retrieved 2013-04-03.
- ^Valya Dudycz Lupescu (February 3, 2012). "What is the Fuller Award? | Honoring Gene Wolfe". The Chicago Literary Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^ abcd"1981 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^ abc"1983 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^ ab"1984 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^ ab"1987 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^ ab"2007 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^"2010 Locus Awards Winners". Locus Online. Locus Publications. June 26, 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- ^World Fantasy Convention (2010). "2010 World Fantasy Award Winners & Nominees". Archived from the original on 2012-10-27. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- ^"Gene Wolfe | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Authors | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^ abc"1982 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^"1985 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^"1986 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^ ab"1988 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^"Soldier of Arete | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^"1989 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^"1994 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^"1996 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^"2001 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^"2002 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^ ab"2005 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^"2008 Award Winners & Nominees | Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Books by Award | WWEnd". Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
- ^"Locus Magazine Announces Award Finalists". Tor.com. May 11, 2011. Retrieved 2012-05-27.