Essay Om 22 Juli Oslo

The 2011 Norway attacks, referred to in Norway as 22 July (Norwegian: 22. juli),[14] the date of the events, were two sequential lone wolf terrorist attacks by Anders Behring Breivik against the government, the civilian population, and a Workers' Youth League (AUF)-run summer camp. The attacks claimed a total of 77 lives.

The first attack was a car bomb explosion in Oslo within Regjeringskvartalet, the executive government quarter of Norway, at 15:25:22 (CEST).[1] The bomb was made from a mixture of fertiliser and fuel oil[15][16] and placed in the back of a van.[17] The van was placed next to the tower block housing the office of Prime MinisterJens Stoltenberg.[18] The explosion killed eight people and injured at least 209 people, twelve of them seriously.[10][11][12]

The second attack occurred less than two hours later at a summer camp on the island of Utøya in Tyrifjorden, Buskerud. The camp was organized by the AUF, the youth division of the ruling Norwegian Labour Party (AP). Breivik, dressed in a homemade police uniform and showing false identification,[19][20] took a ferry to the island and opened fire at the participants, killing 68 of them outright,[7][8] and injuring at least 110 people, 55 of them seriously;[11][12] the 69th victim died in a hospital two days after the massacre.[9] Among the dead were personal friends of Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg, and the stepbrother of Norway's crown princess Mette-Marit.[21]

It was the deadliest attack in Norway since World War II,[22][23] and a survey found that one in four Norwegians knew "someone affected by the attacks".[24] The European Union, NATO and several countries around the world expressed their support for Norway and condemned the attacks. On 13 August 2012, Norway's prime minister received the Gjørv Report which concluded that Norway's police could have prevented the bombing of central Oslo and caught the gunman faster at Utøya, and that more security and emergency measures to prevent further attacks and "mitigate adverse effects" should have been implemented on 22 July.[25]

The Norwegian Police arrested Anders Behring Breivik, a 32-year-old Norwegian right-wing extremist,[26] on Utøya island[27] and charged him with both attacks.[28] The trial against him took place between 16 April and 22 June 2012 in Oslo District Court, where Breivik admitted to having carried out the actions he was accused of, but denied criminal guilt and claimed the defense of necessity (jus necessitatis).[29] On 24 August 2012, Breivik was convicted as charged and sentenced to 21 years of preventive detention in prison (the maximum sentence allowed in Norway), at the expiration of which the sentence can be extended indefinitely, in five year increments at a time, as long as the prisoner is deemed a threat to society.

Preparation for the attacks[edit]

Breivik claims to have begun the planning of terrorist acts in 2002, at the age of 23. He had participated for years in debates on Internet forums and spoken against Islam and immigration.[30] He was preparing for the attacks from at least as early as 2009, though he concealed his violent intentions.[31][32][33][34]

Failed attempt to buy weapons in Prague[edit]

See also: Gun politics in the Czech Republic

Breivik spent six days in Prague in late August and early September 2010. He chose the Czech Republic because the country has some of the most relaxed laws regarding guns and drugs in Europe.[citation needed] Following his Internet inquiry, Breivik noted that "Prague is known for maybe being the most important transit site point for illicit drugs and weapons in Europe". Despite the fact that Prague has one of the lowest crime rates among European capitals,[35] Breivik expressed reservations about his personal safety, writing that (before his trip there) he believed Prague to be a dangerous place with "many brutal and cynical criminals".[36]

He hollowed out the rear seats of his Hyundai Atos in order to have enough space for the firearms he hoped to buy. After two days, he got a prospectus for a mineral extraction business printed, which was supposed to give him an alibi in case someone suspected him of preparing a terrorist attack.[36] He wanted to buy an AK-47-type rifle (this firearm is however not common in the country, unlike Vz. 58[37]), a Glock pistol, hand-grenades and a rocket-propelled grenade, stating that getting the latter two would be a "bonus".[34][36]

Breivik had several fake police badges printed to wear with a police uniform, which he had acquired illegally on the Internet, and which he later wore during the attack.[19][20] Contrary to his expectations, he was unable to get any firearms in the Czech Republic, commenting that it was the "first major setback in [his] operation". In the end, he concluded that Prague was "far from an ideal city to buy guns", nothing like "what the BBC reported", and that he had felt "safer in Prague than in Oslo".[34][36][38]

Arming in Norway and through the Internet[edit]

See also: Gun politics in Norway

Originally, Breivik intended to try to obtain weapons in Germany or Serbia if his mission in Prague failed. The Czech disappointment led him to procure his weapons through legal channels.[38] He decided to obtain a semi-automatic rifle and a Glock pistol legally in Norway, noting that he had a "clean criminal record, hunting license, and two guns (a Benelli Nova12 gaugepump-action shotgun and a .308bolt-action rifle) already for seven years", and that obtaining the guns legally should therefore not be a problem.[34]

Upon returning to Norway, Breivik obtained a legal permit for a .223-caliberRuger Mini-14 semi-automatic carbine, ostensibly for the purpose of hunting deer. He bought it in late 2010 for €1,400 ($2000). He wanted to purchase a 7.62×39mmRuger Mini-30 semi-automatic carbine, but did however for unknown reasons buy the Mini-14.

Getting a permit for the pistol proved more difficult, as he had to demonstrate regular attendance at a sport shooting club.[36] He also bought ten 30-round magazines for the rifle from a United States supplier, and six magazines for the pistol (including four 30-round magazines) in Norway. From November 2010 to January 2011 he went through 15 training sessions at the Oslo Pistol Club, and by mid-January his application to purchase a Glockpistol was approved.[39][40]

Breivik claimed in his manifesto that he bought 300 g of sodium nitrate[41] from a Polish shop for €10 in December 2010, in order to make a bomb fuse.[42] In March 2011,[43] he legally bought 100 kg of chemicals from a small Internet-based Wrocław company. The Polish ABW interviewed the company owner on 24 July 2011.[42] Breivik's Polish purchases initially led to his being placed on the watch list of the Norwegian intelligence, which did not act because they did not believe his actions were relevant to their terror concerns.[44]

He had also planned a last religious service (in Frogner Church, Oslo) before the attack.[36]

Breivik Geofarm[edit]

On 18 May 2009 Behring Breivik created a sole proprietorship called Breivik Geofarm, a company established under the fictitious purpose of cultivating vegetables, melons, roots and tubers.[45][46] The real purpose was to gain access to chemicals and materials, especially fertilizer that could be used for the production of explosives without arousing suspicion.

The place of business was given as Åmot in Hedmark. On 4 May 2011, Breivik purchased 6 tonnes (13,000 lb) of fertilizer through Geofarm at Felleskjøpet, 3 tonnes (6,600 lb) of ammonium nitrate and 3 tonnes (6,600 lb) of calcium ammonium nitrate. According to neighbours, all the fertilizer was stored in his barn.[47] After conducting a reconstruction of the bomb with equivalent amount of fertilizer on the farm in Åmot, police and bomb experts concluded that the bomb had been 950 kg (2,090 lb),[48] about the same size as the one used in the 2002 Bali bombings. Afterwards there was significant debate in Norway about how an amateur could acquire such substantial amounts of fertilizer and in addition manufacture and place such a lethal weapon in the middle of Regjeringskvartalet all by himself. The conclusion by Felleskjøpet was that there is no legislation to keep agricultural businesses from buying as much fertilizer as they like, and that there was nothing suspicious about Breivik's purchase.[49] This was confirmed by the director of the Norwegian Police Security Service, Janne Kristiansen, who stated "not even the Stasi could have prevented this attack".[50]

The company listed at least two Swedish employees at the social networking site Facebook, but it is uncertain whether these people existed.[51]

In April 2011 he reported moving from Oslo to Vålstua farm in the municipality of Åmot, about 9 kilometres (6 mi) south of the community centre Rena, on the east side of Glomma.[52] His agricultural company was run from the farm, and gave him access to ingredients for explosives.[53]

His 950-kilogram (2,090 lb) car bomb exploded in central Oslo on 22 July 2011 where it killed eight people.[54] He had between 1,000 and 1,500 kilograms (2,200 and 3,300 lb) of additional material that was left on the farm and could be used for construction of a second bomb.[55]

Weapons training[edit]

Beside visiting firing ranges and countries with relaxed gun laws to sharpen his skill, Breivik's manifesto says that he made use of the video game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 as a training aid while using World of Warcraft as a cover for his extended period of isolation.[56] He also said that he honed his shooting skills using an in-game holographic sight similar to the one he used during the attacks.[57]

Oslo bombing[edit]

Main article: Timeline of the 2011 Norway attacks § 22 July 2011

On 22 July 2011 at 15:25:22 (CEST) a bomb detonated in Regjeringskvartalet, central Oslo.[1] The bomb was placed in a white Volkswagen Crafter[17] and parked in front of the H block,[58] housing the Office of the Prime Minister, Ministry of Justice and the Police, and several other governmental buildings, such as the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (R4), Ministry of Finance (G block), Ministry of Education and Research (Y block) and the Supreme Court of Norway (behind the G block).[59][60]

The Crafter was registered by surveillance cameras as entering Grubbegata from Grensen at 15:13:23. The van stopped at 15:13:43, 200 metres (660 ft) before the H block. It stood still with the hazard warning lamps on for 1 minute and 54 seconds. The driver then drove the last 200 metres and parked the van in front of the main entrance of the main government building.[61][62] The van was parked at 15:16:30. The front door of the van opened 16 seconds later and after another 16 seconds the driver stepped out of the van. He stood outside the van for 7 seconds before he quickly walked away towards Hammersborg torg, where he had another car parked.[63]

A receptionist who was killed in the bombing tried calling the security guards about the suspicious van parked outside just before the blast.[citation needed]

The driver was dressed like a police officer and had a gun in his hand. A police helmet with a face shield was covering his face. Breivik was not positively identified.[64]

The explosion started fires in the H block (H-blokka) and R4, and the shock wave blew out the windows on all floors as well as in the VG house and other buildings on the other side of the square.[65] The streets in the area were filled with glass and debris. A cloud of white smoke was reported as a fire continued to burn at the Department of Oil and Energy. The blast was heard at least 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) away.[60]

At 15:26 the police received the first message about the explosion,[65] and at 15:28 the first police patrol reported that it had arrived at the scene.[65] At the same time, news agency NTB was told that the Prime Minister was unhurt and safe.[65]

A witness called police at 15:34 to report a person in a police uniform holding a pistol in his hand, entering an unmarked vehicle.[66] Information—including the vehicle's license plate number and description of the suspect—was written on a yellow note, and hand delivered to the police operations central where it lay for twenty minutes[66] before the witness was phoned back. The license plate number was not transmitted on the police radio until two hours later.

Following the explosion, police cleared the area and searched for any additional explosive devices.[67] Through media outlets, police urged citizens to evacuate central Oslo.[68]

Police later announced that the bomb was composed of a mixture of fertilizer and fuel oil (ANFO), similar to that used in the Oklahoma City bombing.[15][16]

The blast was caught on many security cameras.[69]

Impact on transportation[edit]

Immediately after the explosion, the area surrounding the damaged buildings was cordoned off and evacuated. People were asked to remain calm and leave the city centre if possible, but there was no general evacuation. The Oslo Metro remained operational, and most of the Oslo tram network was also running, although sporadically, except for the line through Grensen (the street between Prof. Aschehoug's plass and Stortorvet).[70] Buses also continued to run, although at least one articulated bus on the No.37 line, which stops outside the Ministry of Finance, was commandeered to evacuate the walking wounded.

An e-mail communication with the BBC from a traveller indicated that police were conducting searches in suspicious cars on the road to Oslo Airport, Gardermoen,[71] which remained open.[72][73]

The Gardermoen Line between Lillestrøm and Oslo Airport was shut down after a suspicious package was found close to the tracks.[74] The same happened at the offices of TV 2 which were evacuated after a suspicious package was found outside the building.[75]

Utøya massacre[edit]

Attack[edit]

Approximately one and a half hours after the Oslo explosion,[76] Breivik, dressed in a police uniform and presenting himself as "Martin Nilsen" from the Oslo Police Department,[77][78] boarded the ferry MS Thorbjørn at Utøykaia in Tyrifjorden, a lake some 40 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Oslo, to the island of Utøya,[79] the location of the Norwegian Labour Party'sAUF youth camp. The camp is organised there every summer[80] and was attended by approximately 600 teenagers.[81]

When Breivik arrived on the island, he presented himself as a police officer who had come over for a routine check following the bombing in Oslo. He was met by Monica Bøsei, the camp leader and island hostess. Bøsei probably became suspicious and contacted Trond Berntsen, the security officer on the island, before Breivik killed them both.[82] He then signalled and asked people to gather around him[83] before pulling weapons and ammunition from a bag and firing indiscriminately,[84][85][86] killing and wounding numerous people. He first shot people on the island and later started shooting at people who were trying to escape by swimming across the lake.[87] Survivors on the island described a scene of terror.[84] Survivor Dana Barzingi, then 21, described how several victims wounded by Breivik pretended to be dead, but he came back and shot them again.[84] He spared an 11-year-old boy who had lost his father (Trond Berntsen) during the shooting and stood up against him and said he was too young to die, as well as a 22-year-old man who begged for his life.[88]

Some witnesses hid in undergrowth and lavatories, communicating by text message to avoid giving their positions.[89] The mass shooting lasted for around an hour and a half, ending when a police special task force arrived and Brevik surrendered, despite having ammunition left, at 18:35.[90] The shooter used hollow-point[91] or frangible bullets[92] which increase tissue damage.[92] Breivik repeatedly shouted "You are going to die today, Marxists!"[77]

Bøsei's husband and one of her daughters were present, but escaped with their lives.[93] The youngest victim, New Zealand-born Sharidyn Svebakk-Bøhn of Drammen, was 14 years old.[94] 16-year-old Andrine Bakkene Espeland of Sarpsborg was the last victim, nearly one hour after the shooting began.[95]

Residents in a flotilla of motorboats and fishing dinghies sailed out to rescue the survivors, who were pulled out shivering and bleeding from the water and picked up from hiding places in the bushes and behind rocks around the island's shoreline. Some survived by pretending to be dead.[96] Several campers, especially those who knew the island well, swam to the island's rocky west side and hid in the caves which are only accessible from the water. Others were able to hide away on the secluded Kjærlighetsstien ("love path").[97] Forty-seven of the campers sought refuge in Skolestua ("the School House") together with personnel from the Norwegian People's Aid. Although Breivik shot two bullets through the door, he did not get through the locked door, and the people inside this building survived.[98][99]

The teenagers said that they had decided that it was too difficult to stop the gunman. They discovered a cave-like opening in a rock where they managed to hide 23 children from Breivik. Dzhamayev, who kept guard outside, also dragged three youngsters from the lake who were close to drowning.[100]

Former prime minister Gro Harlem Brundtland, whom Breivik said he hated and, in a pun on the (more or less ironic) epithet Landsmoderen ("mother of the nation"), referred to in his writings as landsmorderen ("murderer of the nation"),[101] had been on the island earlier in the day to give a speech to the camp. After the attack Breivik stated that he originally wanted to target her specifically; but because of delays related to the renovation of Oslo Central railway station, she was already gone when the shooting started.[102][103]

Rescue and emergency response[edit]

The first shot was fired at 17:22.[104] The emergency medical services were informed about the shooting two minutes later.[105] One minute after that the police in Oslo were informed.[106] They immediately tried to reach Utøya as quickly as possible,[106] but did not have a helicopter that could take them straight to the island. By 17:30, the anti-terror police in Oslo (the Emergency Response Unit) were on the way to Utøya by automobile.[107]

One of the first to arrive on the scene was Marcel Gleffe, a German resident of Ski staying at Utvika Camping on the mainland. Recognizing gunshots, he piloted his boat to the island and began throwing life-jackets to young people in the water, rescuing as many as he could in four or five trips, after which the police asked him to stop. The Daily Telegraph credited him with saving up to 30 lives.[108] Another forty were saved by Hege Dalen and Toril Hansen, a married couple on vacation in the area. Dalen was helping from land[109] while Hansen and a neighbor camper made several trips to rescue people in the water.[109] Several dozen more were rescued by Kasper Ilaug, who made three trips to the island. Ilaug, a local resident, received a telephone call that "something terrible" was happening on Utøya and requesting help. He initially thought the call was a prank, but acted anyway.[110][111] Altogether, some 150 who swam away from the island were pulled out of the fjord by campers on the opposite shore.

The anti-terror police reached the meeting point at 18:09, but had to wait a few minutes for a boat to take them across. They reached Utøya at 18:25. When confronted by the heavily armed police on the island, the gunman initially hesitated for a few seconds. When an officer yelled "surrender or be shot" he laid down his weapons.[112]

Anders Breivik called the 112 emergency phone number at least twice to surrender, at 18:01 and 18:26, and continued killing people in between. The police say Breivik hung up both times; they tried to call him back but did not succeed.[113]

When the police arrived at the scene, they were met by survivors begging the officers to throw away their weapons, as they were afraid that the men in uniforms would again open fire on them.[114]

During the attack, 69 people were killed, and of the 517 survivors,[115] 66 were wounded.[116]

Shortage of transport capacity[edit]

The Norwegian police do not have helicopters suitable for transporting groups of police for an airdrop. The one they have is useful only for surveillance and the helicopter crew was on vacation.[117] The only helicopters available to the Oslo-based unit were military ones parked 60 kilometres (37 mi) south of the capital at Moss Airport in Rygge, and thus the special unit had to reach the location by car.[118]

When the local police arrived at Utøykaia, less than 30 minutes after the first shot was fired, they could not find a suitable boat to reach the island. They were then ordered to observe and report.[119]

AUF's own ferry, the 50 passenger MS Thorbjørn, was used by Breivik to go to Utøya. Shortly after the first shot was fired, nine people were leaving the island on the ferry, among them the AUF leader Eskil Pedersen. They feared there might be more terrorists in the area and navigated the ferry 2.7 kilometres (1.7 mi) to the north. Hence the ferry was not available to the police when they arrived at Utøykaia, the normal ferry landing on the mainland.

The police therefore had to use their own rigid-hulled inflatable boat (RHIB). The day of the event, this boat was located in Hønefoss, and had to be transported to the lake and launched before it could be used. When the anti-terror police boarded the RHIB it took on some water and after a few hundred meters, the engine stopped, probably due to water in the fuel. Two minutes later they took over a civilian boat that was sent to assist them. The episode was captured on video.[120] A minute or two after the video ends, a faster civilian boat arrived to help. Four police officers from the anti-terror police boarded the boat. Not wanting to waste any more time, the civilian couple took the police to Utøya.[121]

Some have criticized the police for not using a helicopter, for not immediately getting into small boats, and for endangering the couple who drove the civilian boat.[122]

Arrest of innocent survivor[edit]

On arriving in Utøya, the police arrested, in addition to Breivik, Anzor Djoukaev, an innocent 17-year-old survivor who represented the Akershus branch of AUF. The youth was reportedly stripped naked[123] and locked up in a jail cell, located only meters away from the cell housing the self-confessed killer.[124] The victim, who as a child had witnessed mass murders in Chechnya, was suspected of being an accomplice because his haircut was different from that shown on his identity document, and because he did not react to the carnage with the same tears and hysteria as most of the other survivors.[125] He was kept in custody for seventeen hours.[124] Lawyer Harald Stabell criticized the police for failing to contact the youth's family, who feared he was killed, and for interrogating the victim without a lawyer present.[125][126]

Casualties[edit]

The attacks were the deadliest in Norway since World War II,[22][23] and a survey found that one in four Norwegians knew "someone affected by the attacks".[24] It is also the fifth deadliest terrestrial terrorist attack in Western Europe behind the Bologna bombing in 1980, the Nice attack in 2016, Paris attacks in November 2015, and the Madrid train bombings in 2004.

Oslo[edit]

Eight people were killed in the explosion; the blast, shock wave and debris immediately killed six people, while two others died quickly afterwards from their wounds.[127] Of the 325 people estimated to have been in the government buildings, around them and in the surrounding area, at least 209 people received physical injuries from the blast and debris.[10] While most were relatively minor and could be treated at the local casualty clinic, 12 people received more serious injuries. Ten were sent to Ullevål University Hospital (OUS, Ullevål), four with moderate to serious and six with critical injuries, and two to Aker University Hospital (OUS, Aker).[11][12] A doctor at one of the Oslo University Hospitals (OUS) said the hospital staff were treating head, chest and abdominal wounds.[128]

Oslo, ages of
those killed[129]
AgeDeaths
261
301
322
341
511
561
611
Total: 8

Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg was at his official residence near the Royal Palace, preparing the speech he was scheduled to give at Utøya the next day.[130] Norway's finance minister, Sigbjørn Johnsen, was on holiday in Denmark at the time.[131]

Fewer people than usual were in the area because the bombing took place during July, the usual vacation month for Norwegians,[132] and since it was Friday afternoon, most government employees had gone home for the weekend.

Utøya[edit]

The scope of what happened at the island was initially very confusing, and the first official figures given was that at least 10 people had been killed.[133] However, as the evening progressed several eyewitness reports put this number in doubt, and at approximately 03:50 (CEST) on 23 July, NRK1 and TV2, the two primary Norwegian television networks, broadcast a live press conference from the "Sentrum politistasjon" in Oslo where Norway's National Police Commissioner Øystein Mæland stated the number of fatalities at Utøya to have reached "at least 80" with the count expected to increase.[59][134]

On 25 July, a police spokesperson revealed that the death toll of the victims on Utøya had been revised downwards to 68 after the casualties had been counted on their return to the mainland.[135] They added that the number of people missing was still high and that the number of casualties could be as high as 86. On 29 July police announced that one of the severely wounded victims from Utøya had died in a hospital,[9] bringing the death toll from the island massacre to 69.

On 26 July, the Norwegian police began releasing the names and dates of birth of the victims on their website. By 29 July, the names of all 77 victims (8 from the bomb attack, 69 from Utøya) had been published,[7][8] the last, a shooting victim, having been found on the 28th.[136]

Utøya, age of
those killed[129]
AgeDeaths
142
157
168
1716
1817
195
201
213
232
251
271
281
301
432
451
511
Total: 69
Average age: 20

Of the 69 people who died at the attack on the island, 57 were killed by one or more shots through the head.[127][137] In total, 67 people were killed by gunshots, 1 died falling from a cliff trying to escape, and 1 drowned trying to swim away from the island.[137] In total, Breivik fired at least 186 shots,[138] and still had a "considerable amount of ammunition" left.[92]

In the aftermath, of the 564 people on the island at the time,[10] 69 people died and at least 110 people had received various physical injuries.[11][12] An estimated 50 people were treated at the locally set up casualty clinic, and were treated for relatively minor injuries such as cuts, bruises and hypothermia after fleeing and swimming from the island. It was cloudy and rainy on Utøya that day, air temperature was varying between 14–15 °C (57–59 °F), water temperature around the island was 14 °C[11] and the shortest distance to the mainland was around 600 meters. Sixty people were transported to surrounding hospitals, 55 with serious to critical injuries.[11][12] The chief surgeon who treated the wounds at one of the hospitals said he had never seen similar wounds during his 23 years of practice, and explained that the bullets were extremely fragmented in their path through the body.[92] Thirty-three people had been directly hit by one or more bullets and survived,[10] but one person who was shot died two days later in hospital from the bullet wounds to the head and back.[9]

The 564 people on the island at the time were from all over Norway as well as some visitors from foreign countries. The people who died were from 18 of Norway's 19 counties, and also from Georgia.[139] Wounded people were from the entire country, including Svalbard,[140] and together with the casualties from Oslo, an average of a quarter of Norway's population knew a victim affected by the attacks, according to a survey done.[24] Several of the dead and wounded, or their parents, were personal friends of high-ranking government ministers. Trond Berntsen, an off-duty, unarmed police officer and step-brother of Norway's crown princess Mette-Marit, was the first to be shot dead. [141]

Perpetrator[edit]

Main article: Anders Behring Breivik

Public broadcaster NRK and several other Norwegian media outlets identified the suspected attacker as Anders Behring Breivik. He was arrested on Utøya for the shootings and also linked to the Oslo bombing.[142][143][144] He was charged with terrorism for both attacks.[28] According to his attorney, Breivik acknowledged that he was responsible for both the bomb and the shooting during interrogation but denied culpability, as he asserted that his actions were "atrocious but necessary".[145] At his initial arraignment on 25 July, Breivik was remanded into custody for eight weeks, the first half to be in solitary confinement.[146] Breivik wanted to have an open hearing, and attend it wearing a uniform of his own design, but both requests were denied by the presiding judge.[147]

Mental health[edit]

Following his arrest, Breivik underwent examination by court-appointed forensic psychiatrists, who diagnosed him with paranoid schizophrenia and concluded he had been psychotic at the time of the attacks and was criminally insane.[148] Although criticised in newspaper debates,[149] the submitted report was approved with no remarks by the Norwegian Board of Forensic Medicine after an extended panel of experts had reviewed it.[150]

According to his defense attorney, Breivik initially expressed surprise and felt insulted by the conclusions in the report. He later stated that "this provides new opportunities".[151] Following the criticism of the psychiatric report, the court in January 2012 approved the conduct of a second psychiatric examination. The report from this examination declared Breivik to be sane in April 2012.[152] Ultimately, the verdict and ruling of the district court's five-judge panel agreed that Breivik was sane.[153]

Political and religious views[edit]

Breivik is linked to a 1,518-page compendium entitled 2083: A European Declaration of Independence bearing the name "Andrew Berwick".[32][33][154] The file was e-mailed to 1,003 addresses about 90 minutes before the bomb blast in Oslo.[155][156] Analysts described him as having Islamophobic views and a hatred of Islam,[157][158] and as someone who considered himself as a knight dedicated to stemming the tide of Muslim immigration into Europe.[159][160]

The introductory chapter of the manifesto defining "cultural Marxism" is a copy of Political Correctness: A Short History of an Ideology by the Free Congress Foundation.[161][162][163] Major parts of the compendium are attributed to the pseudonymous Norwegian blogger Fjordman.[164] The text also copies sections of the Unabomber manifesto, without giving credit, while substituting the words "cultural Marxists" for "leftists" and "Muslims" for "black people".[165]The New York Times described American influences in the writings, noting that the compendium mentions the anti-Islamist American Robert Spencer 64 times and cites Spencer's works at great length.[166] The work of Bat Ye'or[167] is cited dozens of times.[168]Neoconservative blogger Pamela Geller,[166] Neo-pagan writer Koenraad Elst[169] and Daniel Pipes are also mentioned as sources of inspiration.[170] The manifesto further contains quotes from Middle East expert Bernard Lewis, Edmund Burke, Mahatma Gandhi, Thomas Jefferson and George Orwell,[171] as well as from Jeremy Clarkson's Sunday Times column and Melanie Phillips' Daily Mail column.[172] The publication speaks in admiration of Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Bruce Bawer, Srđa Trifković,[173] and Henryk M. Broder.[174] The compendium advocates a restoration of patriarchy, which it claims would save European culture.[175][176]

The compendium contains his militantfar-right ideology and xenophobic worldview, which espouses an array of political concepts; including support for varying degrees of cultural conservatism, right-wing populism, ultranationalism, Islamophobia, "far-right Zionism", and Serbian paramilitarism.[177][178] It regards Islam and "cultural Marxism" as the enemy and argues for the annihilation of "Eurabia" and multiculturalism, to preserve a Christian Europe.[32][33][178][179][180][181][182] He further urged Europeans to restore the historic crusades against Islam as in the Middle Ages.[183] A video Breivik released on YouTube 6 hours before the attack has been described as promoting violence towards leftists and Islamists who reside in Western Europe.[184]

Among other things, in the manifesto he identified the Beneš Decrees, which facilitated the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after the Second World War, as an example for committing that act on European Muslims.[185] In his manifesto he also urges the Hindus to drive Muslims out of India.[186] He demands the gradual deportation of all Muslims from Europe from 2011 to 2083 through repatriation.[187] He blames feminism for allowing the erosion of the fabric of European society.[188]

Breivik's writings mention the English Defence League, claiming that he had contact with senior members of the EDL, and that a Norwegian version of the group was 'in the process of gaining strength'. He wrote that the EDL were 'naïve fools' because in his words the EDL 'harshly condemns any and all revolutionary conservative movements that employ terror as a tool'. EDL leader Tommy Robinson denounced Breivik and the attack on 26 July 2011 and denied any links with the Norwegian.[189][190][191][192][193]

After being apprehended, Breivik was characterized by police officials as being a right-wing extremist.[179] Breivik is described by the newspaper Verdens Gang as considering himself a conservative nationalist.[144] According to The Australian, Breivik was highly critical of Muslim immigration into Christian societies, is pro-Israel and an admirer of the Tea Party movement in the United States.[194] Deputy police chief Roger Andresen initially told reporters that "We have no more information than ... what has been found on [his] own websites, which is that it goes towards the right and that it is, so to speak, Christian fundamentalist."[28][195][196] Subsequently, others have disputed Andresen's characterization of Breivik as a Christian fundamentalist.[197][198] Furthermore, Breivik stated that "myself and many more like me do not necessarily have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and God."[199][200] According to the International Business Times, in his manifesto, he "did not see himself as religious", but he did identify as a cultural Christian

A .223 caliber Mini-14, manufactured by Sturm Ruger, weapon model purchased by Anders Breivik
Breivik ran his fictitious company from Åmot municipality in Hedmark county
A graphic that illustrates the placement of the car bomb in Oslo's government quarter on 22 July 2011
G: Ministry of Finance
H: Office of the Prime Minister and the Ministry of Justice and the Police
S: Ministry of Health and Care Services
Y: Ministry of Education and Research
R4: Ministries of Petroleum and Energy; Trade and Industry.
R5: Ministries of Transport and Communications; Culture; Agriculture and Food; Government Administration, Reform and Church Affairs; Local Government and Regional Development; Children, Equality and Social Inclusion.

Norway was today coming to terms with one of the worst atrocities in recent European history as police revealed that 92 people died in the attacks in the centre of Oslo and on a nearby island summer camp, apparently the work of a lone gunman.

The killings, it now seems clear, were carried out by a 32-year old Norwegian, named by local media as Anders Behring Breivik, who had expressed far-right views, and had dressed as a policeman to carry out his bomb attack on government buildings in central Oslo before heading to the island of Utøya, where he shot at least 85 people.

Survivors of the island attack, which took place barely two hours after a huge bomb was detonated close to the offices of Norway's prime minister, Jens Stoltenberg, described how the gunman moved across the small, wooded Utøya holiday island on Friday firing at random as young people scattered in fear.

Teenagers at the lakeside camp organised by Stoltenberg's ruling Labour party fled screaming in panic, many leaping into the water or climbing trees to save themselves, when the attacker began spraying them with gunfire.

"A paradise island has been transformed into a hell," Stoltenberg told a news conference on Saturday morning.

He said he did not want to speculate on the motives of the attacks, but added: "Compared to other countries I wouldn't say we have a big problem with rightwing extremists in Norway. But we have had some groups, we have followed them before, and our police is aware that there are some rightwing groups."

Police spokesman Roger Andresen said of Behring Breivik, who was arrested by anti-terrorism officers at the scene of the shooting: "He is clear on the point that he wants to explain himself."

Andersen said the suspect also posted on websites with Christian fundamentalist tendencies. He did not describe the websites in any more details.

Norway's national police chief, Sveinung Sponheim, told the national broadcaster NRK that the suspected gunman's internet postings "suggest he has some political traits directed towards the right, and anti-Muslim views, but whether that was a motivation for the actual act remains to be seen".

A police official said the suspect appears to have acted alone in both attacks, and that "it seems like this is not linked to any international terrorist organisations at all." The official spoke on condition of anonymity because that information had not been officially released by Norway's police.

"It seems it's not Islamic-terror related," the official said. "This seems like a madman's work."

The attacks are the worst in Europe since the 2004 Madrid train bombings when 191 people were killed.

Police initially said about 10 people were killed at the camp on the island of Utøya, but some survivors said they thought the toll was much higher. Police director Øystein Mæland told reporters early on Saturday they had discovered many more victims.

"It's taken time to search the area. What we know now is that we can say that there are at least 80 killed at Utøya," Mæland said. "It goes without saying that this gives dimensions to this incident that are exceptional."

Mæland said the death toll could rise even more. He said others were severely injured, but police did not know how many were hurt.

Witnesses and survivors of the island attack described scenes of horror and panic.

"I just saw people jumping into the water, about 50 people swimming towards the shore. People were crying, shaking, they were terrified," said Anita Lien, 42, who lives by Tyrifjord lake, a few hundred metres from Utøya. "They were so young, between 14 and 19 years old."

Survivor Jorgen Benone said: "It was total chaos … I think several lost their lives as they tried to get over to the mainland.

"I saw people being shot. I tried to sit as quietly as possible. I was hiding behind some stones. I saw him once, just 20, 30 metres away from me. I thought, 'I'm terrified for my life,' I thought of all the people I love.

"I saw some boats but I wasn't sure if I could trust them. I didn't know who I could trust any more."

Another survivor, a 16-year-old called Hana, told Norway's Aftenposten: "We had all gathered in the main house to talk about what had happened in Oslo. Suddenly we heard shots. First we thought it was nonsense. Then everyone started running.

"I saw a policeman stand there with earplugs. He said, 'I'd like to gather everyone.' Then he ran in and started shooting at people. We ran down towards the beach and began to swim."

Hana said the gunman fired at people in the water.

Police seized the gunman, named by local media as Anders Behring Breivik, and later found undetonated explosives on the island, a pine-clad strip of land about 500 metres long.

Breivik's Facebook page appeared to have been blocked by late evening.

Earlier, it had listed interests including bodybuilding, conservative politics and freemasonry.

Norwegian media said he had set up a Twitter account a few days ago and posted a single message on 17 July saying: "One person with a belief is equal to the force of 100,000 who have only interests."

About 10 police officers were outside the address registered to his name in a four-storey red brick building in the west of Oslo.

The Norwegian daily Verdens Gang quoted a friend as saying he became a rightwing extremist in his late 20s. It said he expressed strong nationalistic views in online debates and had been a strong opponent of the idea that people of different cultural backgrounds can live alongside each other.

One thought on “Essay Om 22 Juli Oslo

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *