Whats In Your Toothpaste By David Bodanis Essay Checker

How to Read and Then Analyze an Essay
Exploring the Links between Reading and Writing
Practicing Active Reading: A Model
John James Audubon, “The Hurricane”
Analyzing an Essay
Reading a Visual Image
Practicing reading a Visual: A Model
Sample Analysis:

How to Write an Essay

Getting Ready to Write
Practicing with Clues in an Assignment
Writing a Draft

How to Revise an Essay
Understanding What Revision Is
Developing Your Own Revising Skills
Getting Help from Other Readers
Making Sure to Proofread

Writers at Work

A Student Writer: Tina Burton’s “The Watermelon Wooer”
A Professional Writer: Gordon Grice’s “Caught in the Widow’s Web”
Gordon Grice “Caught in the Widow’s Web”

 

Chapter 1. Gathering and Using Examples

Getting Ready to Write

How Important Are Examples in Your Writing?

How Do You Gather Examples from Your Experiences?
How Do You Gather Examples from Outside Sources?
Writing
How Many Examples Do You Need?
How Do You Place Examples in Your Essay?
Revising

Are Your Examples Good Choices?

How Did You Order or Arrange Your Examples?

Did You Make Transitions As You Moved From Example To Example?

Analyzing Examples

In an Academic Text

In a Literary Text

Bret Lott, “Night”

In a Visual

Brian Doyle, “Cut”

“The guys who made the basketball team are listed on a piece of paper on the dense wire-webbed glass of the gymnasium door.”

Helen Keller “Acquiring Language” (from The Story of My Life)

“Everything had a name, and each name gave birth to a new thought. As we returned to the house every object which I touched seemed to quiver with life.”

Rick Reilly, “Getting a Second Wind”

“One day five years ago bubbly, gorgeous soccer goalie Korinne Shroyer came home from eighth grade, found her father’s revolver in his closet, and fired a bullet into her skull.”

Oscar Casares, “Ready for Some Fútbol?”

“Speedy Gonzales, the famous cartoon star of the fifties and sixties, has been in the news again lately.”

Deborah L. Rhode, “Why Looks Are the Last Bastion of Discrimination”

“Unattractive people are less likely to be hired and promoted, and they earn lower salaries, even in fields in which looks have no obvious relationship to professional duties.”

Additional Writing Suggestions Using Examples

Chapter 2. Narration

Getting Ready to Write

What Is Narration and What Are Its Elements?

What Are the Common Forms of Narrative Writing?

What Do You Write About if Nothing Ever Happened to You?

What Do You Include in a Narrative?

Writing

How Do You Structure a Narrative?

How Do You End a Narrative?

How Do You Tell a Narrative?

How Do You Write Dialogue?

Revising

How Do You Revise a Narrative?

Analyzing Narration

In an Academic Text

In a Literary Text

Ron Wallace, “Worry”

In a Visual

Langston Hughes,“Salvation”

“I was saved from sin when I was going on thirteen.” 

Frederick Douglass, From “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass”

“I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it. By far the larger part of slaves know as little of their ages as horses know of theirs.”

Lynn Bernardini, “Does This Date Mean Anything to You?”

‘Yes,’ I whispered to the stranger on the phone... . On that date, I gave birth to a son.” 

Tom Haines, “Facing Famine”

“What comes from knowing people who, with an empty grain basket or a thinning goat, edge closer to death?”

Maggie Thach Morshed, “Burden of Love”

“Ultimately, this is the thing I’m sacred to face: that when I become Ghandy’s sole caretaker, his life will eclipse mine, and whatever I have done or accomplished in life will mean nothing.”

 Additional Writing Suggestions Using Narration

Chapter 3. Description

Getting Ready to Write

What Is Description?

Why Record Sense Impressions in Words?

How Do Objective and Subjective Description Differ?

What Do You Include or Exclude from a Description?

Writing

How Do You Describe an Object or a Place?

How Do You Describe a Person?

How Do You Organize a Description?

Revising

How Do You Revise a Description?

Analyzing Descriptions

In an Academic Text

In a Literary Text

In a Visual

Sonya Lea, “First Bath”

“His shoulders hang low and his back is bowed. His body is forty pounds lighter than it was a few days ago, before the cancer surgery, before the blood loss that caused his mind to empty its memories.”

Margo Barnes, “Falling”

“She never like a boy before. Her mother, a third grade teacher, called the boy a hood. You stay away from him, she said.” 

Henry David Thoreau, From “Walden: The Pond and The Pond in Winter”

“This pond is so remarkable for its depth and purity as to merit a particular description.”

Alisa Wolf, “The Day Nana Almost Flew”

“I soon learned what should have been obvious—Nana was suffering from dementia.” 

Keith Pandolfi, “The Case for Bad Coffee”

“I wasn’t always like this. I used to spend silly amounts of money on sturdy brown bags of whole-bean, single origin, locally roasted coffee at the gourmet market down the street.”

 Additional Writing Suggestions Using Description

Chapter 4. Division and Classification

Getting Ready to Write

What Is Division?

What Is Classification?

How Do You Choose a Subject to Write About?

Writing

How Do You Divide or Classify a Subject?

How Do You Structure a Division or Classification Essay?

Revising

How Do You Revise a Division or Classification Essay?

Analyzing Division and Classification

In an Academic Text

In a Literary Text

In a Visual

David Bodanis, “What’s in Your Toothpaste?”

“So it’s chalk, water, paint, seaweed, antifreeze, paraffin oil, detergent, peppermint, formaldehyde, and fluoride—that’s the usual mixture raised to the mouth on the toothbrush for a fresh morning’s clean.”

Liam Wiesenberger, “The Reward of Immigrant Parents”

“Being a first-generational American is an absolute blessing ... and my split cultural identity is something of which I am fiercely proud.” 

Thomas Goetz, “Does the Pleasure of Lighting Up Outweigh the Consequences?”

“His dentist told him that smoking has severely aggravated his gums. If he didn’t quit smoking, he was likely to start losing his teeth.”

Pico Iyer, “This Is Who I Am When No One Is Looking”

“My secret life, as Leonard Cohen calls it, also happens to be my deepest and my best life.” 

Sherrod Blankner, “Why I Paint”

“So why paint? Once my grandmother said to me ‘sometimes I wonder why you don’t just take a photograph?’  That was a rather disappointing day for me.”

Bernard R. Berelson, “The Value of Children: A Taxonomical Essay”

“Why do people want children? It is a simple question to ask, perhaps an impossible one to answer.”

Additional Writing Suggestions Using Division and Classification

 

Chapter 5. Comparison and Contrast

Getting Ready to Write

What Is Comparison and Contrast?

How Do You Choose a Subject?

Must You Always Find Both Similarities and Differences?

Writing

How Do You Structure a Comparison and Contrast Essay?

How Do You Use Analogy, Metaphor, and Simile?

Revising

How Do You Revise a Comparison and Contrast Essay?

Analyzing Comparison and Contrast

In an Academic Text

In a Literary Text

In a Visual

Mark Twain, “Two Views of the Mississippi”

“Now when I had mastered the language of this water and had come to know every trifling feature that bordered the great river as familiarly as I knew the letters of the alphabet, I had made a valuable acquisition. But I had lost something, too.” 

Suzanne Britt, “Neat People vs. Sloppy People”

“I’ve finally figured out the difference between neat people and sloppy people. The distinction is, as always, moral. Neat people are lazier and meaner than sloppy people.”

C.B. Anderson, “Close to Shore”

“Thomas was your father. You were fourteen. You wore size-five clothes from your mother’s closet and began to restrict your eating.” 

Libby Sander, “Colleges Confront a Gender Gap in Student Engagement”

“Men and women, it turns out, tend to view college differently—and those differences often shape their willingness to get invested in academic pursuits and other activities.”

Lillian Li, “Snapchats and Secrets”

“A Snapchat photo can be as worthless as a secret told twenty times.” 

Meghan Daum, “Virtual Love”

“It was the courtship ritual that had seduced us. E-mail had become an electronic epistle, a yearned-for rule book. It allowed us to do what was necessary to experience love.”

Additional Writing Suggestions Using Comparison and Contrast

Chapter 6. Process

Getting Ready to Write

What Is Process?

How Do You Choose a Process Subject?

Writing

How Do You Structure a Process Essay?

Revising

How Do You Revise a Process Essay?

Analyzing Process

In an Academic Text

In a Literary Text 

Janice MiriKitani, “Recipe”

In a Visual

Nicole Perlroth, “How to Devise Passwords That Drive Hackers Away”

“It is absurdly easy to get hacked. All it takes is clicking on one malicious link or attachment.” 

Tarn Wilson, “Go Ahead: Write About Your Parents, Again”

“By understanding the stories we have inherited, we understand ourselves better.”

Tori Reid, “How to Choose a College Major When You’re Stuck”

“Choosing a college major is a big decision that–if made hastily–can land you in an unemployment line, back in school, or working in a career you chose for the wrong reason.” 

Dara Mathis, “The Strange and Wonderful Ways Being a Military Child Changed My Life”

“When people asked me where I was from. I used to say ‘Everywhere and nowhere.’”

Nora Ephron “Revision and Life: Take It from the Top—Again”

“I have been asked to write something for a textbook that is meant to teach college students something about writing and revision.” 

Jennifer Kahn, “Stripped for Parts”

“None of this is what I expected from an organ transplant.”

Additional Writing Suggestions Using Process

 

Chapter 7. Cause and Effect

Getting Ready to Write

What Is Cause and Effect?

How Do You Choose a Subject?

How Do You Isolate and Evaluate Causes and Effects?

Writing

How Do You Structure a Cause-and-Effect Analysis?

Revising

How Do You Revise a Cause-and-Effect Essay?

Analyzing Cause and Effect

In an Academic Text

In a Literary Text

Ellie Schoenfeld, “Barbie’s Little Sister”

In a Visual

Roxane Gay, “There Are Distances between Us”

“These two points are connected in ways we will never fully understand but they are connected. You are there and I am here.” 

James Paul Gee, “Games, Not Schools, Are Teaching Kids to Think”

“The fact is, when kids play video games they can experience a much more powerful form of learning than when they’re in the classroom.”

Elizabeth Chabner Thompson, MD, “Tattoos and Body Piercing: Self-Expression or Self-Mutilation?”

“One of my acquaintances, a self-described ‘tattoo addict,’ said she was amazed at how costly and painful it has been to have them removed.”

Michael Godsey, “When Schools Overlook Introverts”

“This growing emphasis in classrooms on group projects and other interactive arrangements can be challenging for introverted students who tend to perform better when they’re working independently and in more subdued environments.”

Steve Dehner, “What a Stone Weighs”

“More than once in the ten years since Paul died–in a wreck the day before Thanksgiving–more than once we had tried to take up the task of getting a marker in place.” 

Elizabeth Day, “How Selfies Became a Global Phenomenon”

“The pose is important. Knowing self-awareness is conveyed by the slight raise of an eyebrow, the sideways smile that says you’re not taking it too seriously. A doe-eyed stare and mussed- up hair denotes natural beauty, as if you’ve just woken up and can’t help looking like this.”

Additional Writing Suggestions Using Cause and Effect

 

Chapter 8. Definition

Getting Ready to Write

What Is Definition?

What Is the Difference between Denotation and Connotation?

How Much Do You Include in a Definition Essay?

Writing

How Do You Structure a Definition Essay?

Revising

How Do You Revise a Definition Essay?

Analyzing Definitions

In an Academic Text

In a Literary Text

In a Visual

Sarah J. Lin, “Devotion”

“When I was twelve years old, a boy named Sherman decided he loved me. Sherman was nine years older than me and had been born with Down syndrome.” 

Shahnaz Habib, “Hospitality”

“Hospitality is when she walks into your restaurant, a tired young woman in fading clothes, because it is the only one that is still open past midnight on Atlantic Avenue and orders the cheapest thing on the menu.” 

Judy Brady, “I Want a Wife”

“I belong to that classification of people known as wives. I am A Wife.”

Jeet Heer, “I Didn’t Create the Twitter Essay Genre. I Just Made It Popular”

“With a properly focused topic, a set of tweets allows you to ruminate on a subject, to circle around it: to make an essay.” 

Jhumpa Lahiri, “My Two Lives”

“Like many immigrant offspring I felt intense pressure to be two things, loyal to the old world and fluent in the new.”

Amy Tan,  “Mother Tongue”

“Language is the tool of my trade. And I use them all—all the Englishes I grew up with.”

Additional Writing Suggestions Using Definition

Chapter 9. Argument and Persuasion

Getting Ready to Write

What Is the Difference between Arguing and Persuading?

What Do You Already Know About Arguing and Persuading?

How Do You Analyze Your Audience?

What Does It Take to Convince a Reader?

Writing

How Do You Connect Your Thesis and Your Evidence in an Argument?

How Do You Make Sure That Your Argument Is Logical?

How Do You Structure an Argument?

Revising

How Do You Revise an Argumentative or Persuasive Essay?

Analyzing Argument and Persuasion

In an Academic Text

In a Literary Text

Wilfred Owen,  “Dulce et Decorum Est”

In a Visual 

Debate Casebook: Is College for Everyone and Just How Valuable Is a College Education?

Katherine Porter, “The Value of a College Degree”

“Many wonder whether the high cost of tuition, the opportunity cost of choosing college over full-time employment, and the accumulation of thousands of dollars of debt is, in the long run, worth the investment.” 

Linda Lee, “The Case Against College”

“America is obsessed with college.”

Reading and Interpreting Data

Using Data in Writing

Perspectives for Argument: “Are Too Many Students Going to College?”

Who Should and Shouldn’t Go to College?

How Much Does Increasing College-Going Rates Matter to Our Economy and Society?

Economists Have Cited the Economic Benefits That Individual Students Derive from College. Does That Still Apply?

At What Point Does the Cost of College Outweigh the Benefits?

Developing an Argument from a Thesis

Constructing an Argument Using Multiple Sources

 

Debate Casebook: Should Colleges be Allowed to Ban Alcohol on Their Campuses?

Jessica Gross, “Yes, Colleges should be Allowed to Ban Alcohol on their Campuses”

“Instituting a ban on alcohol is just another way of tailoring a college’s package.”

Mike Dang, “No, Colleges should not be Allowed to Ban Alcohol on their Campuses”

“You know that law we have in the U.S. that says only adults aged 21 and over can buy and drink alcohol? Yeah, it hasn’t kept minors away from the bottle, and throwing a ban at them won’t either.”

 Perspectives on College Drinking

Academic Problems

Factors Affecting Student Drinking

Addressing College Drinking

Constructing an Argument

 

Debate Casebook: Should You Volunteer Your Time?

Commentary Editor,“Habitat for Humanity: The Pros and Cons of Philanthropy”

“Habitat and similar organizations do a number of wonderful things for families throughout America...but as houses are erected, so too are barriers separating the ‘selfless’ volunteers from ‘needy’ recipients.”

Charity Navigator, “Guide to Volunteering”

“A well-informed volunteer is not only more likely to make a commitment to charity, but also more apt to make a significant impact on that organization’s work.”

Constructing an Argument

Debate Casebook: Are You Willing to Save a Child’s Life?

Peter Singer, “The Singer Solution to World Poverty”

“The formula is simple: whatever money you’re spending on luxuries, not necessities, should be given away.”

Perspective on Singer’s Argument

Statistics About Need and How to Help

The Measles and Rubella Initiative (www.measlesrubellainitiative.org)

Malaria (www.nothingbutnets.net)

Food for the Poor (www.foodforthepoor.org)

Food Recovery Network (http://www.foodrecoverynetwork.org)

Additional Writing Suggestions Using Argument and Persuasion

 

Chapter 10. The Research Paper

Getting Ready to Write

What Is a Research Paper and Why Are You Writing One?

How Much of a Research Paper Is Direct Quotation from Sources?

How Do You Find a Topic for a Research Paper?

How Do Subject, Topic, and Thesis Differ?

Starting Your Research

How Do You Plan a Search Strategy for Gathering Information?

How Do You Find Sources Published in Magazines and Journals?

How Do You Locate Books on Your Subject?

How Do You Locate Online Sources for Your Paper?

How Do You Evaluate Your Sources?

How Do You Interview People for a Research Paper?

Writing

How Does Researching Help You Write Your Paper?

How Do You Integrate Sources Into Your Paper?

How Do You Shorten a Quotation Using an Ellipsis?

Why Do You Need to Acknowledge and Document Your Sources?

Why Are Sources Cited Differently in Magazine and Newspaper Articles?

What Documentation System Do You Use in Your Paper?

What If Courses in Your Major Require a Different Documentation Style?

Can You Find Software Programs to Help with Documentation?

How Do You Work Quotations Into Your Text?

What If Quotations Are Too Long to Work Into a Sentence?

Revising

What Should You Check in Your Final Review?

How Do You Prepare a “Works Cited” or “References” Page?

Student Research Paper

Glossary and Ready Reference


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

THEMATIC CONTENTS

 

PREFACE

 

HOW TO READ AN ESSAY

     Exploring the links between reading and writing

          Why do you read essays in a writing course?

          How does reading an essay help you become a better writer?

          How does writing help you become a better reader?

          What is the difference between an active and a passive reader?

          What steps do you follow to become an active reader?

     Practicing active reading: A model

          Lewis Thomas, “On Cloning a Human Being”

     Some things to remember about active reading

 

HOW TO WRITE AN ESSAY

     Getting ready to write

          Where do you start when you have an assigned topic?

          Where do you start when you have to choose your own topic?

          How do you gather information?

               Exploring personal experience and observation

               Freewriting to get words down

               Daily writing in journals and blogs

               Brainstorming and mapping

               Asking formal questions

               Interviewing

          How do you write a thesis statement?

     Writing a draft

          How do you structure your paper?

          How do you write an introduction?

          How do you write a conclusion?

          How do you check the structure of your essay?

     Some things to remember about writing a draft

 

HOW TO REVISE AN ESSAY

     Revising the essay

          What does revising mean?

          What are the steps in revising?

          What is a revision log and why is it important?

          Why should you get help from your peers?

          What can you expect from a writing center or writing tutor?

          How should you prepare for a conference with your instructor?

          Why is proofreading important?

     Some things to remember about revising

 

WRITERS AT WORK

     A student writer: Tina Burton, “The Watermelon Wooer”

     A professional writer: Gordon Grice, “Caught in the Widow’s Web”

          Notebook entries

          Drafts

          Final essay

 

CHAPTER ONE: GATHERING AND USING EXAMPLES

     Getting ready to write

          How important are examples in your writing?

          Where can you find your examples?

          How do you gather examples from your experiences?

          How do you gather examples from outside sources?

     Writing

          How many examples do you need?

          How do you place examples into your essay?

     Revising

          Are your examples good choices?

          How did you order or arrange your examples?

          Did you make transitions as you moved from example to example?

                    Student essay:     Frank Smite, “Looking for Love”

     Some things to remember about using examples

     Seeing example in other contexts

                         Literary:         Brett Lott, “Night”

                         Reading:         Steven Pinker, from The Language Instinct

          Visual:     Photographs

     Additional writing suggestions using example

 

     Anna Quindlen, “The Name Is Mine"

         “I was given it at birth, and I have never changed it, although I married.”

     Bob Greene, “Cut"

         “In driving around the country, I have found that an inordinately large proportion of successful men share that same memory–the memory of being cut from a sports team as a boy.”

     Edwidge Danticat, “Westbury Court"

         “Even now, I question what I remember about the children. Did they really die? Or did their mother simply move away with them after the fire?”

     Oscar Casares, “Ready for Some Fútbol?”

         “Speedy Gonzales, the famous cartoon star of the fifties and sixties, has been in the news again lately.”

     Brock Read, “Can Wikipedia Ever Make the Grade?"

         “Among academics, however, Wikipedia continues to receive mixed–and often failing–grades.”

 

CHAPTER TWO: NARRATION

     Getting ready to write

          What is narration and what are its elements?

          What are the common forms of narrative writing?

          What do you write about if nothing ever happened to you?

          What do you include in a narrative?

     Writing

          How do you structure a narrative?

          How do you end a narrative?

          How are narratives told?

          How do you write dialogue?

     Revising

          How do you revise a narrative?

               Pruning out unnecessary detail

               Making your essay’s structure clear

               Looking again at the difference between showing and telling

     Student essay:     Hope Zucker, “The Ruby Slippers”

     Some things to remember about writing narration

     Seeing narration in other contexts

                         Literary:         Peggy McNally, “Waiting”

                         Reading:         S.E. Schlosser, “Blue Hen’s Chicks”

                         Visual:     Photographs

     Additional writing suggestions for narration

 

     Langston Hughes, “Salvation”

         “I was saved from sin when I was going on thirteen”

     Maya Angelou, “Sister Monroe”

         “Each time they pried Sister Monroe loose from the preacher he took another deep breath and kept on preaching, and Sister Monroe grabbed him in another place, and more firmly.”

     Tom Haines, “Famine”

         “What comes from knowing people who, with an empty grain basket or a thinning goat, edge closer to death?”

     Allison Perkins, “Mission Iraq"

         “He didn’t tell me it was dark. He didn’t tell me it was quiet.”

     Evans Hopkins, “Lockdown"

         “I have endured lockdowns in buildings with little or no heat; lockdowns during which the authorities cut off the plumbing completely, so contraband couldn’t be flushed

         away; and lockdowns where we weren’t allowed to shower for more than a month.”

 

CHAPTER THREE: DESCRIPTION

     Getting ready to write

          What is description?

          If recording sense impressions in words is difficult, why should you bother?

          What is the difference between objective and subjective description?

          What do you include and what do you exclude from a description?

     Writing

          How do you describe an object or a place?

          How do you describe a person?

          How do you organize a description?

     Revising

          How do you revise a description?

               Overusing adjectives and adverbs

               Overusing figurative language

               Keeping focused

                    Student essay:     Nadine Resnick, “Natalie”

     Some things to remember about writing description

     Seeing description in other contexts

                         Literary:         Duane BigEagle, “Traveling to Town”

                         Reading:         Charles Dickens, from Bleak House

                         Visual:     Photograph

     Additional writing suggestions for description

 

     Debra Ann Davis, “A Pen by the Phone"

         “My father did have one request in life. All he ever wanted was a pen by thephone.

     N. Scott Momaday, “The Way to Rainy Mountain”

         “I returned to Rainy Mountain in July. My grandmother had died in the spring, and I wanted to be at her grave.”

     William Least Heat Moon, “Nameless, Tennessee”

         “‘You think Nameless is a funny name,’ Miss Ginny said, ‘I see it plain in your eyes. Well, you take yourself up north a piece to Difficult, Defeated or Shake Rag. Now them are silly names.’”

     Terry Tempest Williams, “The Village Watchman"

         “‘Breech,’ my mother told me of my brother’s birth. ‘Allan was born feet first. As a result, his brain was denied oxygen. He is special.’”

     Scott Russell Sanders, “The Inheritance of Tools”

         “At just about the hour when my father died, soon after dawn one February morning when ice coated the windows like cataracts, I banged my thumb with a hammer.”

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DIVISION AND CLASSIFICATION

     Getting ready to write

          What is division?

          What is classification?

          How do you choose a subject?

     Writing

          How do you divide or classify a subject?

               Defining a purpose

               Making your classification or division complete

               Using parallelism

          How do you structure a division or classification essay?

     Revising

          How do you revise a division or classification essay?

               Having a clear purpose

               Keeping the analysis logically structured

               Making sure the categories or parts are proportionally developed

               Checking for parallelism one more time

                    Student essay:     Evan James, “Riding the Rails: The American Hobo”

     Some things to remember about writing division and classification

     Seeing division and classification in other contexts

                         Literary:         Aurora Levis Morales, “Child of the Americas”

                         Reading:         Mark Lester, from Grammar in the Classroom

                         Visual:     Photograph

     Additional writing suggestions for division and classification

 

     David Bodanis, “What’s in Your Toothpaste?”

         “So it’s chalk, seaweed, antifreeze, paraffin oil, detergent, peppermint, formaldehyde, and fluoride–that’s the usual mixture raised to the mouth on the toothbrush for a fresh

         morning's clean.”

     Barbara Ehrenreich, “In Defense of Talk Shows”

         “As anyone who actually watches them knows, the talk shows are one of the excruciatingly moralistic forums the culture has to offer.”

     Pico Iyer, “This Is Who I Am When No One Is Looking”

         "My secret life, as Leonard Cohen calls it, also happens to be my deepest and my best life.”

         Judith Ortiz Cofer, “The Myth of the Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria”

         “Every time I give a reading, I hope the stories I tell, the dreams and fears I examine in my work, can achieve some universal truth that will get my audience past the particulars of 

         my skin color, my accent, or my clothes.”

     Bernard R. Berelson, “The Value of Children: A Taxonomical Essay"

         “Why do people want children? It is a simple question to ask, perhaps an impossible one to answer.”

     Deborah Tannen, “But What Do You Mean?”

         “Unfortunately, women and men often have different ideas about what’s appropriate, different ways of speaking.”

 

CHAPTER FIVE: COMPARISON AND CONTRAST

     Getting ready to write

          What is comparison and contrast?

          How do you choose a subject?

          Do you always find both similarities and differences?

     Writing

          How do you structure a comparison and contrast essay?

          How do you use analogy, metaphor, and simile?

     Revising

          How do you revise a comparison and contrast essay?

               Avoiding the obvious

               Keeping the analysis logically structured

                    Student essay:     Alicia Gray, “Minimizing the Guesswork in a Library Search”

     Some things to remember about writing comparison and contrast

     Seeing comparison and contrast in other contexts

                         Literary:         Martin Espada, “Coca-Cola and Coco Frio”

                         Reading:         John McPhee, from Oranges

                         Visual:     Before and after photographs

     Additional writing suggestions for comparison and contrast

     Alice Mathias, “The Fakebook Generation"

         “I’ve always thought of Facebook as online community theater.”

     William Zinsser, “The Transaction: Two Writing Processes”

         “A school in Connecticut once held ‘a day devoted to the arts,’ and I was asked if I would come and talk about writing as a vocation. When I arrived I found that a second speaker had

         been invited–Dr. Brock . . . a surgeon who had recently begun to write.”

     David Sedaris, “Remembering My Childhood on the Continent of Africa”

         “When Hugh was in the fifth grade, his class took a field trip to an Ethiopian slaughterhouse. He was living in Addis Ababa at the time, and the slaughterhouse was chosen because, he

         says, ‘it was convenient.’”

     Suzanna Britt, “Neat People vs. Sloppy People"
     
“I’ve finally figured out the difference between neat people and sloppy people. The distinction is, as always, moral. Neat people are lazier and meaner than sloppy people.”

     Danzy Senna, “The Color of Love”

         “We had this much in common: We were both women, and we were both writers. But we were as different as two people can be and still exist in the same family.”

     Meghan Daum, “Virtual Love”

         “It was the courtship ritual that had seduced us. E-mail had become an electronic epistle, a yearned-for rule book. It allowed us to do what was necessary to experience love.”

 

CHAPTER SIX: PROCESS

     Getting ready to write

          What is process?

          How do you choose a subject to write about?

     Writing

          How do you structure a process essay?

     Revising

          How do you revise a process essay?

              Choosing an interesting and manageable subject of interest to a reader

              Checking for logical organization

               Beginning and ending

                    Student essay:     Julie Anne Halbfish, “How to Play Dreidel”

     Some things to remember about writing process

     Seeing process in other contexts

                         Literary:         Janice Mirikitani, “Recipe”

                         Reading:         CareerWomen.com, “Getting the Interview”

                         Visual:     Photography

     Additional writing suggestions for process

 

     Lars Eighner, “My Daily Dives in the Dumpster”

      “I began scavenging by pulling pizzas out of the dumpster behind a pizza delivery shop.”

     Nora Ephron, “Revision and Life: Take It from the Top–Again”

      “I have been asked to write something for a textbook that is meant to teach college students something about writing and revision.”

     Walter Mosley, “For Authors, Fragile Ideas Need Loving Every Day

      “‘I know I have a novel in me,’ I often hear people say. ‘But how can I get it out?’”

     David Brooks, “The Culture of Martyrdom”

       “Suicide bombing is the crack cocaine of warfare. It doesn’t just inflict death and terror on its victims, it intoxicates the people who sponsor it.”

         Charlie Drozdyk, “Into the Loop: How to Get the Job You Want after Graduation”

      “Finding a job by interviewing with firms that show up on your campus is like getting a job through the want ads–it’s a passive take-what’s-being-thrown-in-front-of-you approach.”

     Jennifer Kahn, “Stripped for Parts”

       “None of this is what I expected from an organ transplant.”

 

CHAPTER SEVEN: CAUSE AND EFFECT

     Getting ready to write

          What is cause and effect?

          Why do you write a cause-and-effect analysis?

          How do you choose a subject?

          How do you evaluate cause and effects?

     Writing

          How do you structure a cause-and-effect essay?

     Revising

          How do you revise a cause-and-effect essay?

               Retesting your subject

               Concentrating on the important

               Checking for logical organization

               Beginning and ending

                    Student essay:     Cathy Ferguson, “The Influence of Televised Violence on Children”

     Some things to remember about writing cause and effect

     Seeing cause and effect in other contexts

                         Literary:         Marge Piercy, “Barbie Doll”

                         Reading:         www.emedicinehealth.com, “What Causes Migraine Headaches?”

                         Visual:     Photograph

     Additional writing suggestions for cause and effect

 

     E. M. Forster, “My Wood”

       “What is the effect of property upon the character?”

     Joan Jacob Brumberg, “The Origins of Anorexia Nervosa”

       “By returning to its origins, we can see anorexia nervosa for what it is: a dysfunction in the bourgeois family system.”

         Andres Martin, “On Teenagers and Tattoos”

        “Tattoos and piercing have become a part of our everyday landscape.”

     Brent Staples, “Black Men and Public Space”

        “My first victim was a woman–white, well dressed, probably in her early twenties.”

     Veronica Chambers, “Dreadlocked”

        “Hairdressers despaired like cowardly lion tamers at the thought of training my kinky hair. ‘This is some hard hair,’ they would say. I knew that I was not beautiful and I blamed it on my

         hair.”

     Natalie Angier, “Drugs, Sports, Body Image and G.I. Joe”

        “The extra muscle bulk that comes from steroid use may drag an athlete down without compensating for the added weight through better performance.”

 

CHAPTER EIGHT: DEFINITION

     Getting ready to write

          What is definition?

          What is the difference between denotation and connotation?

          How much do you include in a definition?

     Writing

          How do you structure a definition essay?

     Revising

          How do you revise a definition essay?

               Paying attention to your audience

               Checking organization

               Beginning and ending

                    Student essay:     Sherry Heck, “Infallible”

     Some things to remember about writing definition

     Seeing definition in other contexts

                         Literary:         Jamaica Kincaid, “Girl”

                         Reading:         Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, “Definition of ADHD”

                         Visual:     Photograph

     Additional writing suggestions for definition

 

     Ellen Goodman, “Our Do-It-Yourself Economy”

        “You and I, my fellow Americans, have become the unpaid laborers of a do-it-yourself economy.”

     Judy Brady, “I Want a Wife”

         “I belong to that classification of people known as wives. I am A Wife.”

     Robin D. G. Kelley, “The People in Me”

         “‘So what are you?’ I don’t know how many times people have asked me that. ‘Are you Puerto Rican? Dominican? Indian or something? You must be mixed.’”

     Amy Tan, “Mother Tongue”

       “Language is the tool of my trade. And I use them all–all the Englishes I grew up with.”

     Diane Ravitch, “You Can’t Say That”

       “To judge by the magazines we read, the programs we watch or the music lyrics we hear, it would seem that almost anything goes, these days, when it comes to verbal expression. But 

        that is not quite true.”

     Margaret Atwood, “The Female Body”

        “I agree it’s a hot topic. But only one? Look around, there’s a wide range.”

     

CHAPTER NINE: ARGUMENT AND PERSUASION

     Getting ready to write

          Where do you begin when you want to argue or persuade?

          What is the difference between arguing and persuading?

          What do you already know about arguing and persuading?

          How do you analyze your audience?

          What does it take to convince a reader?

     Writing

          How do you connect your thesis and your evidence in an argument?

          How do you make sure that your argument is logical?

          How do you structure an argument?

     Revising

          How do you revise an argumentative or persuasive essay?

               Understanding and respecting your opposition

               Remembering where you are: being honest and fair

               Ending forcefully

                    Student essay:     Beth Jaffe, “Lowering the Cost of a College Education”

     Some things to remember about writing argument and persuasion

     Seeing argument and persuasion in other contexts

                         Literary:         Wilfred Owen, “Dulce et Decorum Est”

                         Reading:         www.teenadvice.about.com, “Top 5 Reasons Youth Should Vote”

                         Visual:     World War I recruiting poster

     Additional writing suggestions for argument and persuasion

 

     DEBATE: Is a College Education Worth the Cost?

     Katherine Porter, “The Value of a College Degree”

      “Many wonder whether the high cost of tuition, the opportunity cost of choosing college over full-time employment, and the accumulation of thousands of dollars of debt is, in the

       long run, worth the investment.”

     Linda Lee, “The Case Against College”

       “America is obsessed with college.”

 

     DEBATE: Impact of Outsourcing Jobs

     Claudia O’Keefe, “The Traveling Bra Salesman’s Lesson”

       “Those mythic decades, during which The American Dream was considered our natural right, are over. We need to wake from our state of denial, accept this golden era’s passing, and get

        on with life.”

     Bruce Raynor, “Protect Workers’ Rights”

       “A prosperous economy requires that workers be able to buy the products that they produce.”

     

     DEBATE: Water–Public or Private?

     Fredrik Segerfeldt, “The Private Sector Can Get Water Flowing to the Poor”

       “Worldwide, 1.1 billion people, mainly in poor countries, do not have access to clean, safe water.”

         Joshua Ortega, “Water Wars: Bottling Up the World’s Supply of H20"

       “Water corporations exist to make profits–not to preserve water’s quality or affordability.”

 

     Martin Luther King, Jr. “I Have a Dream”

       “With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.”

     Richard Rodriguez, “None of This Is Fair”

       “It’s all very simple this year. You’re a Chicano. And I am a Jew. That’s the only real difference between us.”

     

CHAPTER TEN: COMBINATIONS AT WORK

     Jonathan Swift, “A Modest Proposal”

       “A healthy young child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled.”

     E. B. White, “Once More to the Lake”

      “It seemed to me, as I kept remembering all this, that those times and those summers has been infinitely precious and worth saving.”

     Peter Singer, “The Singer Solution to World Poverty”

      “The formula is simple: whatever money you’re spending on luxuries, not necessities, should be given away.”

 

CHAPTER ELEVEN: THE RESEARCH PAPER

     Getting ready to write

          What is the freshman research paper?

          If all papers require research, what is different about a research paper?

          Why are you asked to write a research paper?

          How much of my research paper is direct quotation from my sources?

          How do you find a research paper topic?

               STUDENT WRITERS: Selecting a topic

          What is the difference among subject, topic, and thesis?

          Do you always start with a thesis?

     

     Starting your research

          How do you plan a search strategy?

               Searching by author and title     

               Searching by a subject heading

               Searching by keywords

          How do you locate books on your subject?

               Using reference books as a starting place

               CAUTION: Using Wikipedia as a source

               Finding books in your school’s library catalog

               Browsing the library’s book shelves

          How do you locate online sources about your subject and topic?

               Choosing a search engine    

               TIPS FOR STARTING A WEB SEARCH ON GOOGLE

               Learning how to search the Web

               USING OPERATORS IN YOUR WEB SEARCH

          How do you evaluate the sources you find on the Web?

          How do you find sources published in magazines, journals, and newspapers?

          Where do you start your search for periodical sources?

          How do you locate government documents relevant to your topic?

          How do you interview people for a research paper?

          How do you evaluate your print sources?

     Writing

           How does researching help you write your paper?

               STUDENT WRITER: DRAFTING

          How do you integrate sources into your paper?

          How do you shorten a quotation using ellipses?

          Why do you need to acknowledge and document your sources?

          Why do you need documentation if some of your sources from popular magazines and newspapers did not provide them?

          What documentation system do you use in your paper?

          Can you find software programs to help with documentation?

          How do you work quotations into your text?

     

     Revising

               STUDENT WRITERS: REVISING

          When you review your research paper a final time, to what should you pay attention?

          How do you prepare a “list of works cited” or “references” page?

 

STUDENT RESEARCH PAPERS

 

Kristen LaPorte, “Music as a Healing Power: A Look into the Effect of Music Therapy on Alzheimer’s Patients”

 

     Bailey Kung, “Graffiti: Art or Vandalism”          

 

GLOSSARY AND READY REFERENCE

 

CREDITS

 

INDEX

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